-을

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Jeju[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (-l) (after a vowel)
  • (-reul) (rare, formal, after a vowel)

Pronunciation[edit]

Particle[edit]

(-eul)

  1. indicates the direct object of a verb
    시리레 ᄀᆞ를 담으라.
    sirire gawreu-l dam-eura
    Put the flour into the steamer.

Usage notes[edit]

  • (-eul) is used after a word ending with a consonant. If the preceding word ends in a vowel, (-l) is used instead.

See also[edit]

  • (subject marker) (-i)
  • (topic marker) (-eun)

Korean[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Romanizations
Revised Romanization?-eul
Revised Romanization (translit.)?eul
McCune–Reischauer?ŭl
Yale Romanization?ul

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle Korean 을〮/ᄋᆞᆯ〮 (Yale: -úl/ól), from Old Korean (*-ur) in the early second millennium, from even earlier in the late first millennium. The post-vocalic form (-reul) is probably formed by pre-Middle Korean reduplication, with the original form (-r) now relegated to colloquial speech.

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (-reul)after vowels
  • (-r)after vowels, colloquial

Particle[edit]

(-eul)

  1. The accusative particle, indicating the direct object of a verb.
    사랑했어.Neo-reul sarang-haesseo.I loved you.
    사람 살리다saram-eul sallidato save a person
    보다kkoch-eul bodato see a flower
    부산 가다busan-eul gadato go to Busan
    공부 하다gongbu-reul hadato study
    컨닝 하다keonning-eul hadato cheat on a test
  2. In "long negation" constructions with (-ji), attaches to the negated verb to add emphasis.
    아기 울지 않았다.Agi-neun ulji-reul anatda.The baby did not cry.
    배구 선수 놓지지 않았다.Baegu seonsu-neun gong-eul nochiji-reul anatda.The volleyball player did not lose the ball.
  3. (southern Gyeongsang) Indicates the indirect object of a verb.
    Synonyms: 한테 (-hante), 에게 (-ege)
Usage notes[edit]
  • Note that Korean verbal transitivity can differ from the English equivalent. In particular, verbs of motion can take direct objects, and most compound verbs with 하다 (hada) function as transitive verbs where the meaningful element is a noun which is the direct object of 하다 (hada).
  • Korean case-marking particles can be omitted if the case is obvious from context; in such cases, the particle has an emphatic sense.
  • (-reul) can occur after the locative particle (-e) and the instrumental particle 으로 (-euro).

See also[edit]

  • (-eun, topic marker)
  • (-i, nominative case marker)

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle Korean 으ᇙ/ᄋᆞᇙ (Yale: -ulq/olq), from Old Korean (*-(u)lq).

In Old Korean, a (perhaps the) primary function of this suffix was to form verbal gerunds that could function as nouns, much as English -ing-forms serve as both independent nouns and to attribute nouns adjectivally; this nominalizing usage was only vestigial in Middle Korean and is wholly defunct today.

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (-r)after vowels

Suffix[edit]

(-eul)

  1. A verbal and adjectival irrealis adnominal suffix; generally equivalent to English "that [one] will" or "who [one] will", but not always with a future meaning; indicates the future intention of the subject, the inference of the subject about an event (whether past, present, or future), a general timeless fact, something that ought to be done, etc.
    Coordinate term: (-eun, realist/past adnominal suffix)
    파티 사람
    pati-e ol saramdeul
    the people who are going to come to the party
    친구에게 선물
    chin'gu-ege jul seonmul
    the gift that I will give to my friend
    jugil nom
    the bastard who ought to be killed
    (literally, “the bastard who [people] ought to kill”)
    거리 잠긴다.
    Bi-ga ol ttae i geori-neun jamginda.
    At times when it rains, this street is submerged.
    목발 사용한다.
    Mokbar-eun mot georeul ttae sayonghanda.
    You use crutches when you can't walk.
    차가웠
    chagawosseul mul
    water which should have been cold; water which I predict was cold
Usage notes[edit]
Related terms[edit]

Middle Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Korean (*-(u)r).

Pronunciation[edit]

Particle[edit]

Ablaut/harmonic pair
Yin-form 을〮 (-úl)
Yang-form ᄋᆞᆯ〮 (-ól)

을〮 (-úl)

  1. Accusative case marker.

Alternative forms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Korean: (eul)