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See also: Appendix:Variations of "d"
- (archaic or poetic) -ed.
- Sometimes used to form the past tense of some awkward verbs that are in the form of numerals, letters, and abbreviations, especially in online communication. Compare ’s.
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- In the Early Modern English (1500-1700) period, -ed was usually pronounced as a full syllable (/ɪd/, /ɛd/, /ed/) in all contexts. Today, this is only conserved in verbs ending in /t/ (such as dated), verbs ending in /d/ (such as shaded), and in certain adjectives (learned, blessed). The contracted form with the silent e, now familiar to modern speakers, was then considered somewhat improper and indicated using the -'d suffix. Eventually, this pronunciation became dominant and the archaic pronunciation with the non-silent e is now indicated using -èd.
- Compare 'd.