From Middle English -and, -end, -ant, -nd, from Old English -ende, -ande, present participle ending of verbs, and Old English -end, -nd, agent ending, both from Proto-Germanic *-andz (present participle suffix), from Proto-Indo-European *-anto-. More at -ing.
- (now chiefly dialectal, Scotland) Used to form the present participle of verbs, equivalent to -ing.
- (rare or no longer productive) A suffix of Anglo-Saxon origin forming adjectives from verbs analogous to -ing.
- (no longer productive) A noun suffix, usually denoting agency, similar to -er.
- (personal suffix, archaic) Added to a verb to form the future tense.
- (instantaneous suffix) Added to a stem to form a verb with an instantaneous meaning.
- csikland (“to tickle”)