- Forms adjectives (sometimes used as nouns) that indicate relationship, membership, quality.
- Forms verbs from adjectives meaning "become (adjective)".
Many verbs ending in -ēscō are inchoatives in -scō formed from statives in -eō. However, some verbs exist that are derived directly from the adjective, with no "intermediate" stative verb existing, e.g.:
Conjugation varies with verb; only first principal part shown here for illustration.
1At least one use of the archaic "sigmatic future" and "sigmatic aorist" tenses is attested, which are used by Old Latin writers; most notably Plautus and Terence. The sigmatic future is generally ascribed a future or future perfect meaning, while the sigmatic aorist expresses a possible desire ("might want to"). It is also attested as having a rare sigmatic future passive indicative form ("will have been").
- Aromanian: -esc- (-escu, -eshti, -eashti, -escu), -ãsc-
- Catalan: -eix- (-eixo, -eixes, -eix, -eixen), -isc- (-ixes, -ix, -ixen)
- → English: -esce; -ise, -ish (via Old French)
- Francoprovençal: -éss- (-ésso, -és, -ét, -éssens, -ésséds, -éssont)
- French: -iss- (-is, -is, -it, -issons, -issez, -issent)
- Friulian: -is- (-ìs, -issis, -ìs, -issin)
- Italian: -isc- (-isco, -isci, -isce, -iscono)
- Forms adjectives that signify comparison, relation or resemblance to the word stem (-like, -esque)
- Alternative form of ; forms adjectives that signify "relation" to the word stem; sometimes pejorative
-esco m (plural -escos)