-i

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Contents

English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From the Arabic nisba suffix ـِيّ(-iyy). In English productive from the 19th century.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Used to form adjectives and nouns describing people of a particular city, region, or country, and the language spoken by these people.
    IraqIraqi, IsraelIsraeli, PakistanPakistani, BengalBengali, NepalNepali, DeshDesi, HyderabadHyderabadi
See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • OED, s.v. "-i, suffix2".

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin , the plural ending of the Latin second declension, whence the plural of Italian nouns in -o and -e.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. used to indicate a plural form of some words of Latin or Italian origin, such as fungi, virtuosi or concerti

References[edit]

  • OED, s.v. "-i, suffix1".

Chuukese[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. added to intransitive verbs to make them transitive
  2. (added to transitive verbs) him, her, it (third person singular indirect object)

Usage notes[edit]

  • In Chuukese, transitive verbs in their base form already have the third person singular indirect object implied on them, although the suffix -i can be added for emphasis.

Esperanto[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Perhaps from Latin deponent verbs such as loquī (to speak).

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. verbal inflection marking the infinitive

Etymology 2[edit]

Common to English e (pronounced [i]) in me, she, he, we and the Italian accusative pronouns mi, ti, vi, li, si.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. common vowel of personal pronouns: mi, ni, ci, vi, li, ŝi, ĝi, oni, ili, si.

Estonian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-in.

Suffix[edit]

-i (genitive -me, partitive -it)

  1. Forms nouns from verbs, indicating instruments (tools) are used to perform that verb's action.

Inflection[edit]

This noun needs an inflection-table template.

Derived terms[edit]


Finnish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From the fusion of Proto-Uralic *-j with a stem vowel. Originally allomorphic with -o.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. A nominal suffix used in eg. syle- (fathom)syli (bosom), ukko (man)ukki (grandfather).
  2. (archaic) Used to mark the first part of a compound word, e.g. lehmä (cow)lehmi-.

See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Derives a number of adverbs of generally lative or locative meaning, e.g. aukea- (to open)auki (open), ylä- (upper, high)yli (over).

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]


German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. suffix sometimes used to create a diminutive form
    Hans + ‎-i → ‎Hansi
  2. suffix sometimes used to create a short form
    Spastiker + ‎-i → ‎Spasti

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]


Greenlandic[edit]

Affix[edit]

-i (v-v?, truncative?)

  1. Intransitivizes.

Usage notes[edit]

Sometimes additive after r stems.

Many verbs are intransitivized simply by changing the inflectional ending, without changing the stem; of those that do use an affix, it is not predictable which of -i, -nnig, -ller and -si are used. Also, verbs may use more than one of these, with similarly unpredictable results (e.g. errorsivoq (wash clothes) vs. erruivoq (do dishes), both from errorpaa). If a verb uses one of these affixes, the unaffixed intransitive form may be passive, reciprocal or reflexive w.r.t. the transitive form.

Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]


Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Adjective suffix.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. (adjective suffix) Added to a proper noun or a noun to form an adjective.
    Amerika (America)amerikai (American)
    város (city)városi (urban)
    Freud (Freud)freudi (Freudian)
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Possessive plural.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. (possessive suffix) his/her/its ...-s (third-person singular, multiple possessions)
    kapu (gate)a kapui (his/her/its gates)
    palota (palace)a palotái (his/her/its palaces)
    érme (coin)az érméi (his/her/its coins)
  2. (possessive suffix) your ... -s (second-person singular and plural formal, multiple possessions)
    a maga kapui, az ön kapuiyour (singular, formal) gates
    a maguk kapui, az önök kapuiyour (plural, formal) gates
Usage notes[edit]
  • (possessive suffix) Variants:
    -i is added to words ending in a vowel except -i. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-.
    -ai is added to some back vowel words ending in a consonant
    -ei is added to some front vowel words ending in a consonant
    -jai is added to some back vowel words ending in a consonant or the vowel -i
    -jei is added to some front vowel words ending in a consonant or the vowel -i

Etymology 3[edit]

Personal suffix.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. (personal suffix) Used to form the third-person singular present tense of verbs (indicative mood, definite conjugation).
    kér (to request)kéri (he/she asks something, he/she is asking something)
Usage notes[edit]
  • (personal suffix) See harmonic variants in the table below.

Etymology 4[edit]

Diminutive suffix.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. (diminutive suffix) Added to nouns, mostly used by the younger generation or in informal conversations.
    fagylaltfagyi (ice cream)

See also[edit]


Ido[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Italian -i, Russian (-i). Also from English -i, used with Latin and Italian borrowings.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. -s (Marks the plural form of nouns, by replacing the -o ending.)
    libro (book) + ‎-i → ‎libri (books)

Italian[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Used with a stem to form the second-person singular present of regular -are, -ere verbs and those -ire verbs that do not take "isc"
  2. Used with a stem to form the second-person imperative of -ere verbs
  3. Used with a stem to form the first-, second- and third-person singular present subjunctive of -are verbs
  4. Used with a stem to form the third-person singular imperative of -are verbs

Latin[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

  1. nominative and vocative masculine plural of -us
  2. genitive masculine and neuter singular of -us
  3. Used for the first person present perfect active singular indicative form of any regular verb.

Noun[edit]

  1. dative and ablative singular of -ēs

Lepontic[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i (-i)

  1. Romanization of -𐌉

Lower Sorbian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • -y (after “hard” consonants)

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *-jь.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. suffix creating an adjective from a noun, denoting ‘of or pertaining to’

Derived terms[edit]


Malay[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. locative, repetitive, or exhaustive
    Sayangi Kuala Lumpur.
    Love Kuala Lumpur.
    Renangi kolam itu.
    Swim that pool.

Maltese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Arabic ي(-iyy).

Suffix[edit]

-i (feminine -ija, plural -in)

  1. a derivational suffix, chiefly creating adjectives from nouns
Usage notes[edit]
  • Note that Romance adjectives in -i are treated differently and do not inflect.
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Sicilian -i.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. a common plural suffix
    1. used in Romance nouns in -u as well as Romance adjectives in -u or consonants
      numru (number)numri (numbers)
      illużorju (illusory)illużorji
      frisk (fresh)friski
    2. used in some nouns in -a, chiefly (though not exclusively) ones of Romance origin
      frawla (strawberry)frawli (strawberries)
      qawsalla (rainbow)qawsalli (rainbows)
Usage notes[edit]
See also[edit]

Middle English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Alternative form of -y.
References[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Alternative form of -yf
References[edit]

Norman[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin -īre, the ending of the present active infinitive form of fourth conjugation verbs.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. (Jersey) A suffix forming infinitives of many verbs.

Derived terms[edit]


Northern Sami[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Samic *-jē. Cognate with Finnish -ja.

Suffix[edit]

-i (with odd-syllable stems -eaddji)

  1. Forms agent nouns from verbs.
Usage notes[edit]

This suffix triggers the strongest grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

When attached to verbs in -ut, the suffix becomes -u.

Inflection[edit]
Even i-stem, no gradation
Nominative -i
Genitive -i
-ẹ
Singular Plural
Nominative -i -it
Accusative -i -iid
Genitive -i
-ẹ
-iid
Illative -ái -iide
Locative -is -iin
Comitative -iin -iiguin
Essive -in
Possessive forms
Singular Dual Plural
1st person -án -áme -ámet
2nd person -át -áde -ádet
3rd person -is -iska -iset
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Samic *-ŋë. Cognate with Finnish -va.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Forms adjectives indicating an abundance of something.
    geađgi (stone) + ‎-i → ‎geađgái (stony)
    vuodja (fat) + ‎-i → ‎vuddjii (rich in fat)
Inflection[edit]
Odd, no gradation
Nominative -i
Genitive -ja
Singular Plural
Nominative -i -jat
Accusative -ja -jiid
Genitive -ja -jiid
Illative -jii -jiidda
Locative -jis -jiin
Comitative -jiin -jiiguin
Essive -jin
Possessive forms
Singular Dual Plural
1st person -jan -jeamẹ -jeamẹt
2nd person -jat -jeattẹ -jeattẹt
3rd person -jis -jeaskkạ -jeasẹt
Usage notes[edit]

This suffix triggers the strongest grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

Phonologically, the suffix is actually the consonant j, and so it forms a diphthong with the final vowel of the base word's stem rather than replacing that vowel. Thus, the resulting word is essentially identical to the illative singular form. The noun declines as a contracted stem, with the inflectional stem lacking the -i.

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. The ending of the illative singular case.
Usage notes[edit]

This suffix triggers the strong grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

When possessive suffixes are attached, the suffix changes to the form -s- (for even-syllable stems) or -sa- (for odd-syllable stems).


Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. (non-standard since 2012) Used to form past participle of strong verbs.
  2. (non-standard since 2012) Used to form singular definite form for strong feminine nouns.
  3. (non-standard since 2012) Used to form plural definite form for neuter nouns.
  4. (non-standard since 2012) Used to form feminine singular indefinite form for many adjectives.
  5. (non-standard since 2012) Used to form neuter singular indefinite form for many adjectives.

Old High German[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-į̄.

Suffix[edit]

  1. productive suffix used to form abstract nouns from adjectives
    menigī, managī (crowd, amount) from manag (many)
    tiufī (depth) from tiuf (deep)
    finstrī, finstarī (darkness) from finstar (dark)
    hōhī (height) from hōh (high)
    lengī (length) from lang (long)
    breitī (breadth) from breit (broad)
Declension[edit]

Female n-declension

Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]
  • Middle High German: -e
    • German: -e

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-īniz. Cognate to Gothic -𐌴𐌹𐌽𐍃 (-eins).

Suffix[edit]

  1. non-productive suffix used to form action nouns from weak verbs
    toufī (baptism) from toufen (to baptise)
    welī (choice) from wellen (to choose)
Usage notes[edit]

In Old High German, this suffix is neither frequent nor productive. Many weak verbs have action nouns with -unga instead.

Declension[edit]

Female n-declension


Old Irish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i (suffixed pronoun)

  1. him
  2. it (object pronoun)

Usage notes[edit]

This suffix is used only after third-person singular forms. After 1st person singular forms in -(e)a, 1st person plural forms in -mi, and 3rd person plural forms in -(a)it, the suffix -it is sometimes used.

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]


Romanian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin (second-declension plural ending)

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. (plural) -s
Usage notes[edit]
  • This form of the plural is indefinite, and used for masculine nouns in the nominative/accusative and genitive/dative cases, regardless of singular form. The suffix may cause phonetic changes or vowel deletion (or both):
  • lup + ‎-i → ‎lupi
  • tată + ‎-i → ‎tați
  • fiu + ‎-i → ‎fii
  • frate + ‎-i → ‎frăți

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin illī, nominative masculine plural of ille.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i m

  1. (definite article) the (masculine plural, nominative and accusative)
Usage notes[edit]

This form of the definite article is used for masculine plural nouns in the nominative and accusative cases (as attached to the indefinite plural, which always ends in a vowel):

The suffix is also used with masculine and neuter singular plural adjectives in the nominative and accusative cases to make the articulated definite form, often for emphasis, and it is used before the noun it modifies.

Related terms[edit]
  • -l (masculine/neuter singular nominative and accusative)
  • -a (feminine singular nominative and accusative)
  • -le (feminine plural nominative and accusative)
  • -lui (masculine/neuter singular genitive and dative)
  • -ei (feminine singular genitive and dative)
  • -lor (plural genitive and dative)

Etymology 3[edit]

From Latin -īre, the ending of the present active infinitive form of fourth conjugation verbs. Cognate with Spanish and French -ir, Italian -ire, etc.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. A suffix forming infinitives of many verbs.
Usage notes[edit]
  • Most verbs with infinitives in -i are marked by the once-inchoative infix -esc- in many parts of their conjugation, as well as in various derived words; two such verbs are vorbi (to say) and to love.
  • A sizable group of verbs have infinitives in -i but do not use the infix -esc-, and are otherwise fairly regular; these include, among others, the common verb dormi (sleep), simți (feel), auzi (hear).
  • There is a variant form, , derived from the same Latin source.
See also[edit]

Skolt Sami[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Samic *-jē.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Forms agent nouns from verbs.
Inflection[edit]

This noun needs an inflection-table template.

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Samic *-ŋë.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Forms adjectives indicating an abundance of something.
Inflection[edit]

This adjective needs an inflection-table template.

Usage notes[edit]

Phonologically, the suffix is actually the consonant j, and so it forms a diphthong with the final vowel of the base word's stem rather than replacing that vowel.

Derived terms[edit]



Swedish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. -y; when added to one noun, creates a new one that indicates the use or activity of the first. See also -eri.

Derived terms[edit]


Tagalog[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. (Batangas) Imperative suffix, usually equals to "-in/-an mo" in Standard Tagalog and other dialects
    Buksi yung pinto!
    Open the door!

Turkish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Third-person singular possessive suffix denoting singular possession.
    ev (house) + ‎-i → ‎evi (his/her/its house)
    ofis (office) + ‎-i → ‎ofisi (his/her/its office)
  2. Accusative suffix.
    gelin + ‎-i → ‎gelini

Usage notes[edit]

  • It's used only when the word's last vowel is "e" or "i". It may change into "", "-u" and "" according to the last vowel of the word. (possession suffix)
    kız + ‎-i → ‎kızı (the last vowel is "a" or "ı")
    yol + ‎-i → ‎yolu (the last vowel is "o" or "u")
    yüz + ‎-i → ‎yüzü (the last vowel is "ö" or "ü")
  • If the word ends in "p", "ç", "t" or "k", it may change them into "b", "c", "d" and "ğ".
    sebep + ‎-i → ‎sebebi
    çekiç + ‎-i → ‎çekici
    senet + ‎-i → ‎senedi
    çiçek + ‎-i → ‎çiçeği
  • If the word ends in a vowel, it's used with an auxiliary consonant; "y" for the accusative case suffix and "s" for the possessive suffix
    kedi + ‎-i → ‎kediyi
    kedi + ‎-i → ‎kedisi
  • It must be used with an apostrophe if it is appended to a proper noun.
    Zafer + ‎-i → ‎Zafer'i
    Ali + ‎-i → ‎Ali'yi / Ali'si

Uzbek[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Third-person singular possessive suffix. Used after a noun ending in a consonant. It has the same meaning as uning (its) placed before a noun.
    Bu kitobi.
    This is its book.

Veps[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-ja.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. -er; forms agent nouns from verbs.
Usage notes[edit]

When attached to a verb with a stem in -e-, this becomes -ii.

Inflection[edit]
Inflection of -i
nominative sing. -i
genitive sing. -jan
partitive sing. -jad
partitive plur. -jid
singular plural
nominative -i -jad
accusative -jan -jad
genitive -jan -jiden
partitive -jad -jid
essive-instructive -jan -jin
translative -jaks -jikš
inessive -jas -jiš
elative -jaspäi -jišpäi
illative ? -jihe
adessive -jal -jil
ablative -jalpäi -jilpäi
allative -jale -jile
abessive -jata -jita
comitative -janke -jidenke
prolative -jadme -jidme
approximative I -janno -jidenno
approximative II -jannoks -jidennoks
egressive -jannopäi -jidennopäi
terminative I ? -jihesai
terminative II -jalesai -jilesai
terminative III -jassai
additive I ? -jihepäi
additive II -jalepäi -jilepäi
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Adjectival/participal use of the agent noun suffix above.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. -ing; forms the present active participle of verbs.
Usage notes[edit]

When attached to a verb with a stem in -e-, this becomes -ii.

Inflection[edit]
Inflection of -i
nominative sing. -i
genitive sing. -jan
partitive sing. -jad
partitive plur. -jid
singular plural
nominative -i -jad
accusative -jan -jad
genitive -jan -jiden
partitive -jad -jid
essive-instructive -jan -jin
translative -jaks -jikš
inessive -jas -jiš
elative -jaspäi -jišpäi
illative ? -jihe
adessive -jal -jil
ablative -jalpäi -jilpäi
allative -jale -jile
abessive -jata -jita
comitative -janke -jidenke
prolative -jadme -jidme
approximative I -janno -jidenno
approximative II -jannoks -jidennoks
egressive -jannopäi -jidennopäi
terminative I ? -jihesai
terminative II -jalesai -jilesai
terminative III -jassai
additive I ? -jihepäi
additive II -jalepäi -jilepäi
Derived terms[edit]
Category Veps present active participles not found

Volapük[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. A morpheme used to mark the accusative singular of a word (such as a noun or pronoun).
    Dog beiton mani. / Mani beiton dog
    The dog bites the man.
    Mot löfof omi. / Omi löfof mot. (a.s., hicili, soni, u higaaporn).
    The mother loves him. (e.g. the (male) child, son, or (male) lovebird).

Welsh[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Cognate with Irish .

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Pluralisation suffix
    toiled (toilet)toiledi (toilets)
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Welsh -im, from Proto-Brythonic *-iμ.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Forms verbal nouns.
See also[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


Zulu[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Nguni *-i, from Proto-Bantu *-ì.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Forms agent nouns from verbs.

Usage notes[edit]

The suffix replaces the -a inherent in the verb stem.

Derived terms[edit]