-i

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Contents

English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin , the plural ending of the Latin second declension, whence the plural of Italian nouns in -o and -e.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. used to indicate a plural form of some words of Latin or Italian origin, such as fungi, virtuosi or concerti

References[edit]

  • OED, s.v. "-i, suffix1".

Etymology 2[edit]

From the Arabic nisba suffix ـِيّ(-iyy). In English productive from the 19th century.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Used to form adjectives and nouns describing people of a particular city, region, or country, and the language spoken by these people.
    IraqIraqi, IsraelIsraeli, PakistanPakistani, BengalBengali, NepalNepali, DeshDesi, HyderabadHyderabadi
See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • OED, s.v. "-i, suffix2".

Chuukese[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. added to intransitive verbs to make them transitive
  2. (added to transitive verbs) him, her, it (third person singular indirect object)

Usage notes[edit]

  • In Chuukese, transitive verbs in their base form already have the third person singular indirect object implied on them, although the suffix -i can be added for emphasis.

Esperanto[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Perhaps from Latin deponent verbs such as loqui "to speak".

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. (verbal inflection marking the infinitive)

Etymology 2[edit]

Common to English e (pronounced [i]) in me, she, he, we and the Italian accusative pronouns mi, ti, vi, li, si.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. common vowel of personal pronouns: mi, ni, ci, vi, li, ŝi, ĝi, oni, ili, si.

Estonian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-in.

Suffix[edit]

-i ‎(genitive -me, partitive -it)

  1. Forms nouns from verbs, indicating instruments (tools) are used to perform that verb's action.

Inflection[edit]

This noun needs an inflection-table template.

Derived terms[edit]



Finnish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From fusion of Proto-Uralic *-j with a stem vowel. Originally allomorphic with -o.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. A nominal suffix used in eg. syle-(fathom)syli(bosom), ukko(man)ukki(grandfather).
  2. (archaic) Used to mark the first part of a compound word, e.g. lehmä(cow)lehmi-.

See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Derives a number of adverbs of generally lative or locative meaning, e.g. aukea-(to open)auki(open), ylä-(upper, high)yli(over).

See also[edit]


German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. suffix sometimes used to create a diminutive form, as in HansHansi
  2. suffix sometimes used to create a short form, as in SchiedsrichterSchiri, Spastiker → Spasti

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]


Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Adjective suffix.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. (adjective suffix) Added to a proper noun or a noun to form an adjective.
    Amerika(America)amerikai(American)
    város(city)városi(urban)
    Freud(Freud)freudi(Freudian)
Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 2[edit]

Possessive plural.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. (possessive suffix) his/her/its ...-s (third-person singular, multiple possessions)
    kapu(gate)a kapui(his/her/its gates)
    palota(palace)a palotái(his/her/its palaces)
    érme(coin)az érméi(his/her/its coins)
  2. (possessive suffix) your ... -s (second-person singular and plural formal, multiple possessions)
    a maga kapui, az ön kapui - your (singular, formal) gates
    a maguk kapui, az önök kapui - your (plural, formal) gates
Usage notes[edit]
  • (possessive suffix) Variants:
    -i is added to words ending in a vowel except -i. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-.
    -ai is added to some back vowel words ending in a consonant
    -ei is added to some front vowel words ending in a consonant
    -jai is added to some back vowel words ending in a consonant or the vowel -i
    -jei is added to some front vowel words ending in a consonant or the vowel -i

Etymology 3[edit]

Personal suffix.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. (personal suffix) Used to form the third-person singular present tense of verbs (indicative mood, definite conjugation).
    kér(to request)kéri(he/she asks something, he/she is asking something)
Usage notes[edit]
  • (personal suffix) See harmonic variants in the table below.

Etymology 4[edit]

Diminutive suffix.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. (diminutive suffix) Added to nouns, mostly used by the younger generation or in informal conversations.
    fagylaltfagyi(ice cream)

See also[edit]


Ido[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowing from Italian -i, Russian (-i).

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. -s (Marks the plural form of nouns, by replacing the -o ending.)
    libro(book) + ‎-i → ‎libri(books)

Italian[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Used with a stem to form the second-person singular present of regular -are, -ere verbs and those -ire verbs that don't take "isc"
  2. Used with a stem to form the second-person imperative of -ere verbs
  3. Used with a stem to form the first-, second- and third-person singular present subjunctive of -are verbs
  4. Used with a stem to form the third-person singular imperative of -are verbs

Latin[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

  1. nominative masculine plural of -us
  2. genitive masculine singular of -us
  3. genitive neuter singular of -us
  4. vocative masculine plural of -us
  5. Used for the first person present perfect active singular indicative form of any regular verb.

Noun[edit]

  1. dative singular of -ēs
  2. ablative singular of -ēs

Lepontic[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Romanization of -𐌉

Lower Sorbian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • -y (after “hard” consonants)

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *-jь.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. suffix creating an adjective from a noun, denoting ‘of or pertaining to’

Derived terms[edit]



Malay[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. locative, repetitive, or exhaustive.
    Sayangi Kuala Lumpur.
    Love Kuala Lumpur.
    Renangi kolam itu.
    Swim that pool.

Norman[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin -īre, the ending of the present active infinitive form of fourth conjugation verbs.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. (Jersey) A suffix forming infinitives of many verbs.

Derived terms[edit]



Northern Sami[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Samic *-jē. Cognate with Finnish -ja.

Suffix[edit]

-i ‎(with odd-syllable stems -eaddji)

  1. Forms agent nouns form verbs.

Usage notes[edit]

This suffix triggers the strongest grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

When attached to verbs in -ut, the suffix becomes -u.

Inflection[edit]
Even, no gradation
Nominative -i
Genitive -i
-e
Singular Plural
Nominative -i -it
Accusative -i -iid
Genitive -i
-e
-iid
Illative -ái -iide
Locative -is -iin
Comitative -iin -iiguin
Essive -in
Possessive forms
Singular Dual Plural
1st person -án -áme -ámet
2nd person -át -áde -ádet
3rd person -is -iska -iset
Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Samic *-ŋë. Cognate with Finnish -va.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Forms adjectives indicating an abundance of something.
    geađgi(stone) + ‎-i → ‎geađgái(stony)
    vuodja(fat) + ‎-i → ‎vuddjii(rich in fat)
Usage notes[edit]

This suffix triggers the strongest grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

Phonologically, the suffix is actually the consonant j, and so it forms a diphthong with the final vowel of the base word's stem rather than replacing that vowel. Thus, the resulting word is essentially identical to the illative singular form. The noun declines as a contracted stem, with the inflectional stem lacking the -i.

Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 1[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. The ending of the illative singular case.
Usage notes[edit]

This suffix triggers the strong grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

When possessive suffixes are attached, the suffix changes to the form -s- (for even-syllable stems) or -sa- (for odd-syllable stems).


Old High German[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-į̄.

Suffix[edit]

  1. productive suffix used to form abstract nouns from adjectives
    menigī, managī(crowd, amount) from manag(many)
    tiufī(depth) from tiuf(deep)
    finstrī, finstarī(darkness) from finstar(dark)
    hōhī(height) from hōh(high)
    lengī(length) from lang(long)
    breitī(breadth) from breit(broad)
Declension[edit]

Female n-declension

Descendants[edit]
  • Middle High German: -e
    • German: -e
Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-īniz. Cognate to Gothic -𐌴𐌹𐌽𐍃(-eins).

Suffix[edit]

  1. non-productive suffix used to form action nouns from weak verbs
    toufī(baptism) from toufen(to baptise)
    welī(choice) from wellen(to choose)
Declension[edit]

Female n-declension

Usage notes[edit]

In Old High German, this suffix is neither frequent nor productive. Many weak verbs have action nouns with -unga instead.


Old Irish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i ‎(suffixed pronoun)

  1. him
  2. it (object pronoun)

Usage notes[edit]

This suffix is used only after 3rd person singular forms. After 1st person singular forms in -(e)a, 1st person plural forms in -mi, and 3rd person plural forms in -(a)it, the suffix -it is sometimes used.

See also[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Category Old Irish words suffixed with -i not found



Romanian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin (second-declension ending)

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. (plural) -s
Usage notes[edit]
  • This form of the plural is indefinite, and used for masculine nouns in the nominative/accusative and genitive/dative cases, regardless of singular form. The suffix may cause phonetic changes or vowel deletion (or both):
  • lupi, from lup
  • tați, from tată
  • fii, from fiu
  • frăți, from frate

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin illī, nominative masculine plural of ille.

Suffix[edit]

-i m

  1. (definite article) the (masculine plural, nominative and accusative)
Usage notes[edit]

This form of the definite article is used for masculine plural nouns in the nominative and accusative cases (as attached to the indefinite plural, which always ends in a vowel):

The suffix is also used with masculine and neuter singular plural adjectives in the nominative and accusative cases to make the articulated definite form, often for emphasis, and it is used before the noun it modifies.

Related terms[edit]
  • -l (masculine/neuter singular nominative and accusative)
  • -a (feminine singular nominative and accusative)
  • -le (feminine plural nominative and accusative)
  • -lui (masculine/neuter singular genitive and dative)
  • -ei (feminine singular genitive and dative)
  • -lor (plural genitive and dative)

Etymology 3[edit]

From Latin -īre, the ending of the present active infinitive form of fourth conjugation verbs. Cognate with Spanish and French -ir, Italian -ire, etc.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. A suffix forming infinitives of many verbs.
Usage notes[edit]
  • Most verbs with infinitives in -i are marked by the once-inchoative infix -esc- in many parts of their conjugation, as well as in various derived words; two such verbs are a vorbi(to say) and a iubi(to love).
  • A sizable group of verbs have infinitives in -i but do not use the infix -esc-, and are otherwise fairly regular; these include, among others, the common verb a dormi(sleep), a simți(feel), a auzi(hear).
  • There is a variant form, , derived from the same Latin source.
See also[edit]

Swedish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. -y; when added to one noun, creates a new one that indicates the use or activity of the first. See also -eri.

Derived terms[edit]



Turkish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Third-person singular possessive suffix denoting singular possession.
    ev(house) + ‎-i → ‎evi(his/her/its house)
    ofis(office) + ‎-i → ‎ofisi(his/her/its office)
  2. Accusative suffix.
    gelin + ‎-i → ‎gelini

Usage notes[edit]

  • It's used only when the word's last vowel is "e" or "i". It may change into "", "-u" and "" according to the last vowel of the word. (possession suffix)
    kız + ‎-i → ‎kızı (the last vowel is "a" or "ı")
    yol + ‎-i → ‎yolu (the last vowel is "o" or "u")
    yüz + ‎-i → ‎yüzü (the last vowel is "ö" or "ü")
  • If the word ends in "p", "ç", "t" or "k", it may change them into "b", "c", "d" and "ğ".
    sebep + ‎-i → ‎sebebi
    çekiç + ‎-i → ‎çekici
    senet + ‎-i → ‎senedi
    çiçek + ‎-i → ‎çiçeği
  • If the word ends in a vowel, it's used with an auxiliary consonant; "y" for the accusative case suffix and "s" for the possessive suffix
    kedi + ‎-i → ‎kediyi
    kedi + ‎-i → ‎kedisi
  • It must be used with an apostrophe if it's appended to a proper noun.
    Zafer + ‎-i → ‎Zafer'i
    Ali + ‎-i → ‎Ali'yi / Ali'si

Uzbek[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Third-person singular possessive suffix. Used after a noun ending in a consonant. It has the same meaning as uning(its) placed before a noun.
    • Bu kitobi.
      "This is its book."

Veps[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-ja.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. -er; forms agent nouns from verbs.
Usage notes[edit]

When attached to a verb with a stem in -e-, this becomes -ii.

Inflection[edit]
Inflection of -i
nominative sing. -i
genitive sing. -jan
partitive sing. -jad
partitive plur. -jid
singular plural
nominative -i -jad
accusative -jan -jad
genitive -jan -jiden
partitive -jad -jid
essive-instructive -jan -jin
translative -jaks -jikš
inessive -jas -jiš
elative -jaspäi -jišpäi
illative  ? -jihe
adessive -jal -jil
ablative -jalpäi -jilpäi
allative -jale -jile
abessive -jata -jita
comitative -janke -jidenke
prolative -jadme -jidme
approximative I -janno -jidenno
approximative II -jannoks -jidennoks
egressive -jannopäi -jidennopäi
terminative I  ? -jihesai
terminative II -jalesai -jilesai
terminative III -jassai
additive I  ? -jihepäi
additive II -jalepäi -jilepäi
Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 2[edit]

Adjectival/participal use of the agent noun suffix above.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. -ing; forms the present active participle of verbs.
Usage notes[edit]

When attached to a verb with a stem in -e-, this becomes -ii.

Inflection[edit]
Inflection of -i
nominative sing. -i
genitive sing. -jan
partitive sing. -jad
partitive plur. -jid
singular plural
nominative -i -jad
accusative -jan -jad
genitive -jan -jiden
partitive -jad -jid
essive-instructive -jan -jin
translative -jaks -jikš
inessive -jas -jiš
elative -jaspäi -jišpäi
illative  ? -jihe
adessive -jal -jil
ablative -jalpäi -jilpäi
allative -jale -jile
abessive -jata -jita
comitative -janke -jidenke
prolative -jadme -jidme
approximative I -janno -jidenno
approximative II -jannoks -jidennoks
egressive -jannopäi -jidennopäi
terminative I  ? -jihesai
terminative II -jalesai -jilesai
terminative III -jassai
additive I  ? -jihepäi
additive II -jalepäi -jilepäi
Derived terms[edit]
Category Veps present active participles not found

Volapük[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. A morpheme used to mark the accusative singular of a word (such as a noun or pronoun).
    Dog beiton mani. / Mani beiton dog.
    The dog bites the man.
    Mot löfof omi. / Omi löfof mot. (a.s., hicili, soni, u higaaporn)
    The mother loves him. (e.g., the (male) child, son, or (male) lovebird)

Welsh[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Cognate with Irish .

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Pluralisation suffix
    toiled(toilet)toiledi(toilets)
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Welsh -im, from Proto-Brythonic *-iμ.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Forms verbal nouns.
See also[edit]

Derived terms[edit]



Zulu[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *-ì.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Forms agent nouns from verbs.

Usage notes[edit]

The suffix replaces the -a inherent in the verb stem.

Derived terms[edit]