-i

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English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From the Arabic nisba suffix ـِيّ (-iyy) or from Hebrew ־י (-i), both sharing a common Semitic root. In English productive from the 19th century.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Used to form adjectives and nouns describing people of a particular city, region, or country, and the language spoken by these people.
    Iraq + ‎-i → ‎Iraqi
    Israel + ‎-i → ‎Israeli
    Pakistan + ‎-i → ‎Pakistani
    Bengal + ‎-i → ‎Bengali
    Nepal + ‎-i → ‎Nepali
    Desh + ‎-i → ‎Desi
Translations[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • OED, s.v. "-i, suffix2".

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin , the plural ending of the Latin second declension, whence the plural of Italian nouns in -o and -e.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (dependent on the specific lexical item, sometimes variable) enPR: ē, ī, IPA(key): /i/, /aɪ/

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Used to form the plural of some words of Latin or Italian origin.
    foci, fungi
    concerti, virtuosi

References[edit]

  • OED, s.v. "-i, suffix1".

Etymology 3[edit]

Variant of -ie or -y.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Used to form diminutives of given names.
    Becki, Benji, Jimmi, Lexi, Nicki, Sammi, Sandi, Trini, Vicki

Afar[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i or

  1. Used to create nouns from class I verbs, denoting either the agent or the instrument of the action.

Usage notes[edit]

  • Used together with the prefix t- to create feminine nouns. The stress will shift to the last syllable.
  • Used together with the prefix y- to create masculine nouns. The stress will not be on the last syllable.

References[edit]

  • Mohamed Hassan Kamil (2015) L’afar: description grammaticale d’une langue couchitique (Djibouti, Erythrée et Ethiopie)[1], Paris: Université Sorbonne Paris Cité (doctoral thesis), page 118

Albanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From the ending Proto-Indo-European *-osyo, from Proto-Indo-European *-os. cognate to Messapic -aihi.[1][2][3] Related to Albanian i (of, the, to).

Pronunciation[edit]

Article[edit]

-i m

  1. masculine singular nominative suffixed definite article: the
    malësor (highlander) + ‎-i → ‎malësori (the highlander)
    mal (mountain) + ‎-i → ‎mali (the mountain)

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Matzinger 2015, pp. 62–66
  2. ^ Ismajli 2015, pp. 65–68.
  3. ^ Matzinger, Joachim (2017). "The Lexicon of Albanian". In Klein, Jared; Joseph, Brian; Fritz, Matthias (eds.). Handbook of Comparative and Historical Indo-European Linguistics. 3. Walter de Gruyter.

Chuukese[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. added to intransitive verbs to make them transitive
  2. (added to transitive verbs) him, her, it (third person singular indirect object)

Usage notes[edit]

  • In Chuukese, transitive verbs in their base form already have the third person singular indirect object implied on them, although the suffix -i can be added for emphasis.

Esperanto[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Perhaps from Latin deponent verbs such as loquī (to speak). Perhaps from French and Spanish verbs ending in -ir.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. verbal inflection marking the infinitive
Conjugation[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Common to English e (pronounced [i]) in me, she, he, we and the Italian accusative pronouns mi, ti, vi, li, si.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. common vowel of personal pronouns: mi, ni, ci, vi, li, ŝi, ĝi, oni, ili, si.

Estonian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-in.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Forms nouns from verbs, indicating instruments (tools) are used to perform that verb's action.

Inflection[edit]

Declension of -i (ÕS type 1e/veski, no gradation)
singular plural
nominative -i -id
accusative nom.
gen. -i
genitive -ite
partitive -it -eid
illative -isse -itesse
-eisse
inessive -is -ites
-eis
elative -ist -itest
-eist
allative -ile -itele
-eile
adessive -il -itel
-eil
ablative -ilt -itelt
-eilt
translative -iks -iteks
-eiks
terminative -ini -iteni
essive -ina -itena
abessive -ita -iteta
comitative -iga -itega

Or less commonly:

Declension of -i (ÕS type 5/liige, length gradation)
singular plural
nominative -i -med
accusative nom.
gen. -me
genitive -mete
partitive -it -meid
illative -messe -metesse
-meisse
inessive -mes -metes
-meis
elative -mest -metest
-meist
allative -mele -metele
-meile
adessive -mel -metel
-meil
ablative -melt -metelt
-meilt
translative -meks -meteks
-meiks
terminative -meni -meteni
essive -mena -metena
abessive -meta -meteta
comitative -mega -metega

Derived terms[edit]

Finnish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-i, from Proto-Uralic *-j (specifically its fusion with the stem vowel). Originally allomorphic with -o (< *-oi, in which the *-i- caused labialization of the preceding *a).

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. A non-productive nominal suffix deriving nouns from nominal stems.
    ukko ((old) man) + ‎-i → ‎ukki (grandfather)
  2. Forms nouns from some verbs.
  3. (archaic) Used to mark the first part of a compound word.
    lehmä (cow) + ‎-i → ‎lehmi-
Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Conflated:

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Forms lative adverbs.
    aueta (to open) + ‎-i → ‎auki (open)
    ylä- (upper, high) + ‎-i → ‎yli (over)
Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-West Germanic *-ij-, *-j- (diminutive suffix). Compare Dutch -je (diminutive suffix), English -y (diminutive suffix).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [i]
  • (file)

Suffix[edit]

-i (informal)

  1. Forms pet names from given names, kinship terms, and terms of address.
    Hans + ‎-i → ‎Hansi
    Papa (dad, daddy) + ‎-i → ‎Papi (pops)
    Schatz (sweetheart, darling) + ‎-i → ‎Schatzi
  2. (endearing, sometimes derogatory) Forms nouns from adjectives and verbs denoting someone characterized by that word.
    schlaff (slack; weary) + ‎-i → ‎Schlaffi (weak, tired person) (derogatory)
    brummen (to hum) + ‎-i → ‎Brummi (rig, truck)
  3. Forms clippings.
    Pullover + ‎-i → ‎Pulli
    Schokolade + ‎-i → ‎Schoki

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Gothic[edit]

Romanization[edit]

-i

  1. Romanization of -𐌹

Greenlandic[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i (v-v?, truncative?)

  1. Intransitivizes.

Usage notes[edit]

Sometimes additive after r stems.

Many verbs are intransitivized simply by changing the inflectional ending, without changing the stem; of those that do use an affix, it is not predictable which of -i, -nnig, -ller and -si are used. Also, verbs may use more than one of these, with similarly unpredictable results (e.g. errorsivoq (wash clothes) vs. erruivoq (do dishes), both from errorpaa). If a verb uses one of these affixes, the unaffixed intransitive form may be passive, reciprocal or reflexive w.r.t. the transitive form.

Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  • Bjørnum, S.: Grønlandsk grammatik, pp. 67-68. Atuagkat 2003.
  • Vestgrønlands Grammatik, p. 106-107, F.A.J. Nielsen, 2014

Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Adjective-forming suffix.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. (adjective-forming suffix) Added to proper nouns, certain common nouns and postpositions to form adjectives:
    1. names of places (toponyms)
      Amerika (America) + ‎-i → ‎amerikai (American)
    2. names of people (anthroponyms, thus eponyms)
      Freud (Freud) + ‎-i → ‎freudi (Freudian)
    3. certain common nouns
      város (city) + ‎-i → ‎városi (urban)
      kémia (chemistry) + ‎-i → ‎kémiai (chemical)
    4. postpositions (as part of the phrase in which they occur)
      az ablak alatt (under the window) + ‎-i → ‎az ablak alatti szék (the chair under the window)
Usage notes[edit]
  • Final -o and (which only occur in non-Hungarian words) change to and .[1]
    Oslooslói (Oslovian)
    Malmömalmői (Malmö-based)
    Victor HugoVictor Hugó-i (Hugolian, Hugonian, Hugoesque)
  • If the suffix -i were to follow word-final -i, only one is retained (so one needs to know the original form).[2][3]
    Helsinkihelsinki (Helsinkian)
    Zamárdi (a town in Somogy County, Hungary)zamárdi (from Zamárdi, in theory, it could also derive from a non-existent *Zamárd)
  • The other word-final short vowels (a, e, u, ü) remain unchanged (just like long ones and consonants).
    Prága (Prague)prágai (Praguian)
    Goethegoethei (Goethean)
    Peruperui (Peruvian)
    Öskü (a village in Veszprém County, Hungary)ösküi (from Öskü)
  • The fact that word-final a and e remain short before the adjective-forming -i often becomes distinctive against the multiple-possession possessives of words that end in a and e, e.g. formai (formal) and formái (his/her/its forms) or megyei (county-level) and megyéi (his/her/its counties).
  • Names with a fleeting vowel: Egeregri, as well as names ending in -halom, e.g. Szigethalomszigethalmi.
  • Names ending in -falu (e.g. Leányfalu) may be suffixed in three ways: The official way is retaining the full form, e.g. leányfalui; in the vernacular, leányfalusi may be heard; and forms like leányfalvi are increasingly rare.[4]
  • Names ending in a possessive suffix such as -falva, -halma, -háza, -földe (outside elements of proper names: földje), -telke: Official usage increasingly prefers retaining the whole name (e.g. nyíregyházai from Nyíregyháza), though in common parlance the word-final a and e tend to be dropped (e.g. nyíregyházi). The drawback of the latter is that the original form cannot be established (as nyíregyházi could theoretically derive from a non-existent *Nyíregyház).[4]
  • For non–proper noun elements with a possessive suffix, native speakers often have a hard time trying to add this suffix, e.g. whether the last element of (Erzsébet királyné) útja and (Örs vezér) tere should become úti and téri (losing the mark of the possessive) or útjai and terei (having an ambiguous sense, primarily used for multiple possessions). As a rule of thumb, the former solution may be preferable.[4]
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Possessive plural.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. possessive suffix for multiple possessions
    1. (with no noun for possessor) his, her, its ……-s (third-person singular; the pronoun ő (s/he) being optional for emphasis)
      kapu (gate)a kapui (his/her/its gates), az ő kapui (his/her gates)
      érme (coin)az érméi (his/her/its coins), az ő érméi (his/her coins)
    2. (with no noun for possessor, formal) your ……-s (second-person singular, grammatically resembling the third person sg.)
      kapu (gate)a kapui (your [formal] gates), az ön kapui, a maga kapui (your [formal] gates)
    3. construed with a noun or certain pronouns as the possessor: ……’s ……-s, ……-s of …… (third-person sg. or pl., depending on the noun or pronoun)
      az ember(nek a) kapuithe person’s gates
      a gyerek(nek az) érméithe child’s coins
      az emberek(nek a) kapuithe people’s gates
      a gyerekek(nek az) érméithe children’s coins
      az önök kapui, a maguk kapuiyour (plural, formal) gates
      azok(nak a) kapuithe gates of those
      ki(k)nek az érméi?whose coins?
Usage notes[edit]
  • (possessive suffix) Variants:
    -i is added to words ending in a vowel except -i. Final -a changes to -á-; final -e changes to -é-. The latter feature distinguishes it from the -i (adjective-forming suffix), which does not lengthen the preceding -a/-e.
    -ai is added to some back-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -ei is added to some front-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -jai is added to some back-vowel words ending in a consonant or the vowel -i
    -jei is added to some front-vowel words ending in a consonant or the vowel -i
    • If the possessed noun is in the plural and the possessor is expressed in English with a possessive pronoun only (rather than a noun), e.g. “their toys” (as opposed to “the children’s toys”), the -ik/-aik/-eik/-jaik/-jeik suffixes are required in Hungarian.

Etymology 3[edit]

Personal suffix.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. (personal suffix) Forms the definite third-person singular present tense of verbs (indicative mood).
    kér (to request) + ‎-i → ‎kéri (he/she asks him/her or for that thing, he/she is asking him/her or for that thing)
Usage notes[edit]
  • (personal suffix) See harmonic variants in the table below.

Etymology 4[edit]

Diminutive suffix.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. (diminutive suffix) Added to nouns or their clipped form; mostly used by the younger generation or in informal conversations.
    fagylaltfagyi (ice cream)

Etymology 5[edit]

See -e.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. (dialectal, except for some set forms) Alternative form of -e (third-person singular single-possession possessive suffix)
    se szeri, se száma(instead of szere)[5]
  2. (dialectal, except for some set forms) Alternative form of (combining form of the above)
    ízibena mindenittöviről hegyirejószerivelfrissibendögivelbővibensebtibenfelibe/fölibeköribeközibe(instead of standard ízében, a mindenét, tövéről hegyére, jószerével, frissében (uncommon), dögével (uncommon), bővében, sebtében, felébe/fölébe, körébe/​köréje, közébe/​közéje/​közé)[5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Section 216 in A magyar helyesírás szabályai, 12. kiadás (’The Rules of Hungarian Orthography, 12th edition’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 2015. →ISBN
  2. ^ Section 173 in A magyar helyesírás szabályai, 12. kiadás (’The Rules of Hungarian Orthography, 12th edition’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 2015. →ISBN
  3. ^ Section 215 in A magyar helyesírás szabályai, 12. kiadás (’The Rules of Hungarian Orthography, 12th edition’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 2015. →ISBN
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Grétsy, László and Gábor Kemény, editors. Nyelvművelő kéziszótár (’Concise Dictionary for Language Cultivation’). Second, revised and extended edition. Budapest: Tinta Könyvkiadó, 2005. →ISBN
  5. 5.0 5.1 birtokos személyjelek alaki változatai [“form variants of possessive suffixes”] in Grétsy, László and Gábor Kemény, editors. Nyelvművelő kéziszótár (’Concise Dictionary for Language Cultivation’). Second, revised and extended edition. Budapest: Tinta Könyvkiadó, 2005. →ISBN

Icelandic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse -i, from Proto-Germanic *-į̄, cognate with Gothic -𐌴𐌹 (-ei).

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. a nominal suffix, forming abstract nouns

Derived terms[edit]

Ido[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Italian -i, Russian (-i). Also from English -i, used with Latin and Italian borrowings.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. -s; marks the plural form of nouns, by replacing the -o ending
    libro (book) + ‎-i → ‎libri (books)

Indonesian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Inherited from Malay -i, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *-i (local transitive suffix)

Suffix[edit]

-i (active imperative -i, active indicative meng- -i, active jussive/optative -ilah, ordinary accidental passive di- -i, accidental/perfective passive ter- -i)

  1. verbal suffix for manipulating, completing, or placing the object from a noun.
  2. transitive verbal suffix for causation in surface of the object from an adjective.
  3. transitive verbal suffix for doing activity to the object from a transitive verb.
  4. transitive locative imperative verbal suffix from a noun:
    1. to apply or give [base] to the object.
      Hormati orang tua!honour/respect parent!
    2. to remove [base] from the object.
      kuliti(de)skin, peel
  5. transitive adverbial imperative verbal suffix from a noun: to act as/be [base] with reference to object
    Sutradarai film ini!Direct this movie! (literally, “Become the producer of this film!”)
Usage notes[edit]

This suffix is never used after verbs ending in final -i for euphonic reasons and to avoid near-homophony with bare forms (-∅). Thus, beli (to buy) does not derive into *belii, although other colloquial suffixes allow violation of the previous rule such as beliin (buy it!). Other examples include cari (← *carii) and capai (← *capaii).

Usage notes[edit]

  • When this suffix is combined with the prefixes meng-, di-, ter-, and ke-, the imperative aspect is lost.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Malay -i, from Arabic nisba suffix ـِيّ (-iyy).

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. adjectives suffix (with the meaning “related to ...”)
Alternative forms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Italian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i (non-lemma form of verb-forming suffix)

  1. used with a stem to form the second-person singular present of regular -are, -ere verbs and those -ire verbs that do not take "isc"
  2. used with a stem to form the second-person imperative of -ere verbs
  3. used with a stem to form the first-, second- and third-person singular present subjunctive of -are verbs
  4. used with a stem to form the third-person singular imperative of -are verbs

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin , nominative plural, or from Latin -ōs, accusative plural, of masculine nouns in -us.

Suffix[edit]

-i (non-lemma form of noun-forming suffix)

  1. used to form the plural of nouns ending in -o

Etymology 3[edit]

There are two competing theories:

  1. Formed analogically by borrowing the -i plural of Italian nouns in -o.
  2. Formed phonologically from the expected Latin nominative/accusative plural -ēs according to the sound change -es > -ei > -i.

Suffix[edit]

-i (non-lemma form of noun-forming suffix)

  1. used to form the plural of nouns ending in -e

Etymology 4[edit]

Perhaps from the Latin genitive singular ending of masculine nouns in -us.

Suffix[edit]

-i m or f by sense (noun-forming suffix, invariable)

  1. forms surnames from proper names, occupations, etc.
    Giacomo (James, Jacob) + ‎-i → ‎Giacomi (surname)
    Giacometto (Jim, Jake) + ‎-i → ‎Giacometti (surname)
    ferraro (smith) + ‎-i → ‎Ferrari (surname)

Kongo[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *-ì.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. used for creation of agent nouns

Latin[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Italic *-ai, from unknown origin.

Suffix[edit]

  1. Used for the first person present perfect singular form of any regular verb.

Etymology 2[edit]

Unknown. Compare Proto-Celtic *-ī (genitive singular ending). Displaced Proto-Italic -osjo (See Proto-Italic *-os.), which was descended from Proto-Indo-European -osyo. (See Proto-Indo-European *-os.)

Suffix[edit]

  1. genitive/locative singular of -us for second-declension nouns.
  2. genitive masculine/neuter singular of -us for for first/second-declension adjectives.
  3. (uncommon) genitive feminine singular of -us for for first/second-declension adjectives.

Etymology 3[edit]

From the pronominal declension.[1] Displaced -es except in the third declension.

Suffix[edit]

  1. nominative/vocative plural of -us for most second-declension nouns.
  2. nominative/vocative masculine plural of -us for first/second-declension adjectives.

Etymology 4[edit]

Noun[edit]

  1. dative/ablative singular of -ēs

Etymology 5[edit]

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Suffix[edit]

  1. dative singular of -s
  2. ablative neuter singular of -s

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sihler, Andrew L. (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, →ISBN, page 261

Lepontic[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Romanization of -𐌉

Livvi[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-ja. Cognates include Finnish -ja and Estonian -ja.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Used to form agent nouns from verbs; -er

Declension[edit]

back vowel harmonic front vowel harmonic
Declension of -i (Type 19/lugii, no gradation)
singular plural
nominative -i -jat
genitive -jan -join,
-jiin
partitive -jua -joi,
-jii
illative -jah -joih,
-jiih
inessive -jas -jois,
-jiis
elative -jaspäi -joispäi,
-jiispäi
allative -jale -joile,
-jiile
adessive -jal -joil,
-jiil
ablative -jalpäi -joilpäi,
-jiilpäi
translative -jakse -joikse,
-jiikse
essive -jannu -joinnu,
-jiinnu
abessive -jattah -joittah,
-jiittah
comitative -janke -joinke,
-jiinke
instructive -join,
-jiin
prolative -jači
Declension of -i (Type 20/keittäi, no gradation)
singular plural
nominative -i -jät
genitive -jän -jöin,
-jiin
partitive -jiä -jöi,
-jii
illative -jäh -jöih,
-jiih
inessive -jäs -jöis,
-jiis
elative -jäspäi -jöispäi,
-jiispäi
allative -jäle -jöile,
-jiile
adessive -jäl -jöil,
-jiil
ablative -jälpäi -jöilpäi,
-jiilpäi
translative -jäkse -jöikse,
-jiikse
essive -jänny -jöinny,
-jiinny
abessive -jättäh -jöittäh,
-jiittäh
comitative -jänke -jöinke,
-jiinke
instructive -jöin,
-jiin
prolative -jäči

Derived terms[edit]

Lower Sorbian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • -y (after “hard” consonants)

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *-jь.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. suffix creating an adjective from a noun, denoting ‘of or pertaining to’

Derived terms[edit]

Makasar[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *-i, from Proto-Austronesian *-i.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. suffix forming transitive verbs
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *ia.

Pronoun[edit]

-i (absolutive enclitic)

  1. he, him, she, it, they, them (third person singular and plural)

See also[edit]

Malay[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. imperative verbal suffix
    Sayangi Kuala Lumpur.Love Kuala Lumpur.
    Renangi kolam itu.Swim that pool.
  2. (before a person, imperative) added to intransitive verbs to make them transitive
    Emak menghadiahi adik sebuah basikal.Mother gives the brother a bicycle.

Synonyms[edit]

  • (before an object) -kan

Derived terms[edit]

Maltese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Arabic ـِيّ (-iyy).

Suffix[edit]

-i m (feminine -ija, plural -in)

  1. a derivational suffix, chiefly creating adjectives from nouns
Usage notes[edit]
  • Note that Romance adjectives in -i are treated differently and do not inflect.
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Sicilian -i. Though -i is not used as a plural ending in Arabic, it was integrated fairly easily as a large number of broken plurals happen to end in this vowel, compare tieqatwieqi, etc.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. a common plural suffix
    1. used in nouns and adjectives in -u
      numru (number)numri (numbers)
      illużorju (illusory)illużorji
    2. used in some nouns in -a, chiefly ones of Romance origin
      frawla (strawberry)frawli (strawberries)
      qawsalla (rainbow)qawsalli (rainbows)
    3. used in some nouns and adjectives in a consonant, chiefly ones of Romance origin
      frisk (fresh)friski
Usage notes[edit]

See also[edit]

Middle English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Alternative form of -y.

Etymology 2[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Alternative form of -yf

Mokilese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Used to form transitive verbs from intransitive verbs or nouns

Derived terms[edit]

Namuyi[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Used to give the prospective aspect to verbs

Derived terms[edit]

Norman[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin -īre, the ending of the present active infinitive form of fourth conjugation verbs.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. (Jersey) A suffix forming infinitives of many verbs.

Derived terms[edit]

Northern Sami[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Samic *-jē. Cognate with Finnish -ja.

Suffix[edit]

-i (with odd-syllable stems -eaddji)

  1. Forms agent nouns from verbs.
Usage notes[edit]
  • This suffix triggers the strongest grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

When attached to verbs in -ut, the suffix becomes -u.

Inflection[edit]
Even i-stem, no gradation
Nominative -i
Genitive -i
-ẹ
Singular Plural
Nominative -i -it
Accusative -i -iid
Genitive -i
-ẹ
-iid
Illative -ái -iide
Locative -is -iin
Comitative -iin -iiguin
Essive -in
Possessive forms
Singular Dual Plural
1st person -án -áme -ámet
2nd person -át -áde -ádet
3rd person -is -iska -iset
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Samic *-jëj.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Forms adjectives indicating an abundance of something.
    geađgi (stone) + ‎-i → ‎geađgái (stony)
    vuodja (fat) + ‎-i → ‎vuddjii (rich in fat)
Usage notes[edit]
  • This suffix triggers the strongest grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

Phonologically, the suffix is actually the consonant j, and so it forms a diphthong with the final vowel of the base word's stem rather than replacing that vowel. Thus, the resulting word is essentially identical to the illative singular form. The noun declines as a contracted stem, with the inflectional stem lacking the -i.

Inflection[edit]
Odd, no gradation
Nominative -i
Genitive -ja
Singular Plural
Nominative -i -jat
Accusative -ja -jiid
Genitive -ja -jiid
Illative -jii -jiidda
Locative -jis -jiin
Comitative -jiin -jiiguin
Essive -jin
Possessive forms
Singular Dual Plural
1st person -jan -jeamẹ -jeamẹt
2nd person -jat -jeattẹ -jeattẹt
3rd person -jis -jeaskkạ -jeasẹt
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. The ending of the illative singular case.
Usage notes[edit]
  • This suffix triggers the strong grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

When possessive suffixes are attached, the suffix changes to the form -s- (for even-syllable stems) or -sa- (for odd-syllable stems).

Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. (non-standard since 2012) Used to form past participle of strong verbs.
  2. (non-standard since 2012) Used to form singular definite form for strong feminine nouns.
  3. (non-standard since 2012) Used to form plural definite form for neuter nouns.
  4. (non-standard since 2012) Used to form feminine singular indefinite form for many adjectives.
  5. (non-standard since 2012) Used to form neuter singular indefinite form for many adjectives.

Ojibwe[edit]

Final[edit]

-i

  1. be such a number, such an amount

Derived terms[edit]

Final[edit]

-i

  1. occurs after initials to form animate intransitive verbs (vai)

Derived terms[edit]

Final[edit]

-i

  1. occurs in inanimate intransitive verbs (vii)

Derived terms[edit]

Final[edit]

-i

  1. occurs in some uninflected words, including preverbs

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

Old High German[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-West Germanic *-ī, from Proto-Germanic *-į̄.

Suffix[edit]

  1. productive suffix used to form abstract nouns from adjectives
    manag (many) + ‎-i → ‎menigī, managī (crowd, amount)
    tiuf (deep) + ‎-i → ‎tiufī (depth)
    finstar (dark) + ‎-i → ‎finstrī, finstarī (darkness)
    hōh (high) + ‎-i → ‎hōhī (height)
    lang (long) + ‎-i → ‎lengī (length)
    breit (broad) + ‎-i → ‎breitī (breadth)
Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]
  • Middle High German: -e
    • German: -e

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-īniz. Cognate to Gothic -𐌴𐌹𐌽𐍃 (-eins).

Suffix[edit]

  1. non-productive suffix used to form action nouns from weak verbs
    toufen (to baptise) + ‎-i → ‎toufī (baptism)
    wellen (to choose) + ‎-i → ‎welī (choice)
Usage notes[edit]

In Old High German, this suffix is neither frequent nor productive. Many weak verbs have action nouns with -unga instead.

Declension[edit]

Female n-declension

Old Irish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i (suffixed pronoun)

  1. him
  2. it (object pronoun)

Usage notes[edit]

This suffix is used only after third-person singular forms. After 1st person singular forms in -(e)a, 1st person plural forms in -mi, and 3rd person plural forms in -(a)it, the suffix -it is sometimes used.

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Old Norse[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-į̄, cognate with Gothic -𐌴𐌹 (-ei).

Suffix[edit]

-i f

  1. -th. Forms abstract nouns from adjectives which represent 'the state, quality or measure of' the adjective.
Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-ô, cognate with Gothic -𐌰 (-a).

Suffix[edit]

-i m

  1. Forms agent nouns, often from the zero-grade form of the base.
    Synonym: -ari
Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Old Polish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *-ьjь.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. forms adjectives from nouns, usually possessive

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Polish: -i

Phalura[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Feminine agreement suffix

References[edit]

  • Liljegren, Henrik, Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[2], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN

Etymology 2[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Feminine agreement suffix

References[edit]

  • Liljegren, Henrik, Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[3], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN

Polish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Old Polish -i, from Proto-Slavic *-ьjь.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i m

  1. forms masculine adjectives meaning "belonging to", especially for animals
    koza + ‎-i → ‎kozi
    kot + ‎-i → ‎koci
    pies + ‎-i → ‎psi
  2. forms masculine adjectives derived from prepositional phrases
    noga + ‎-i → ‎beznogi

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • -i in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Portuguese[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. a suffix indicating the inflection of -ir:
    1. first-person singular preterite indicative
    2. second-person plural imperative

Related terms[edit]

  • -ei (affirmative imperative for 2nd-conjugation verbs)
  • -ai (affirmative imperative for 1st-conjugation verbs and negative imperative for 3rd-conjugation verbs)

Romani[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Forms the nominative singular of vocalic oikoclitic feminine nouns
  2. Forms the nominative feminine singular of vocalic oikoclitic adjectives
  3. Attaches to the perfective stem to form the third-person singular feminine past tense of intransitive verbs

Romanian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Inherited from Latin (second-declension plural ending).

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Used to form plurals
Usage notes[edit]
  • This form of the plural is indefinite, and used for masculine nouns in the nominative/accusative and genitive/dative cases, regardless of singular form. The suffix may cause phonetic changes or vowel deletion (or both):
  • lup + ‎-i → ‎lupi
  • tată + ‎-i → ‎tați
  • fiu + ‎-i → ‎fii
  • frate + ‎-i → ‎frați
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Inherited from Latin illī, nominative masculine plural of ille.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i m

  1. (definite article) the (masculine plural, nominative and accusative)
Usage notes[edit]

This form of the definite article is used for masculine plural nouns in the nominative and accusative cases (as attached to the indefinite plural, which always ends in a vowel):

The suffix is also used with masculine and neuter singular plural adjectives in the nominative and accusative cases to make the articulated definite form, often for emphasis, and it is used before the noun it modifies.

Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]
  • -l (masculine/neuter singular nominative and accusative)
  • -a (feminine singular nominative and accusative)
  • -le (feminine plural nominative and accusative)
  • -lui (masculine/neuter singular genitive and dative)
  • -ei (feminine singular genitive and dative)
  • -lor (plural genitive and dative)

Etymology 3[edit]

Inherited from Latin -īre, the ending of the present active infinitive form of fourth conjugation verbs. Cognate with Spanish and French -ir, Italian -ire, etc.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. A suffix forming infinitives of many verbs.
Usage notes[edit]
  • Most verbs with infinitives in -i are marked by the once-inchoative infix -esc- in many parts of their conjugation, as well as in various derived words; two such verbs are vorbi (to say) and iubi (to love).
  • A sizable group of verbs have infinitives in -i but do not use the infix -esc-, and are otherwise fairly regular; these include, among others, the common verb dormi (sleep), simți (feel), auzi (hear).
  • There is a variant form, , derived from the same Latin source.
Conjugation[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

From e (is).

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. is
Derived terms[edit]

Skolt Sami[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Samic *-jē.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Forms agent nouns from verbs.
Inflection[edit]

This noun needs an inflection-table template.

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Samic *-jëj.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Forms adjectives indicating an abundance of something.
Usage notes[edit]

Phonologically, the suffix is actually the consonant j, and so it forms a diphthong with the final vowel of the base word's stem rather than replacing that vowel.

Inflection[edit]

This adjective needs an inflection-table template.

Derived terms[edit]

Swahili[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. (without TAM infix) general negative marker
    sijuiI don't know
    • 18th century, Abdallah bin Ali bin Nasir, Al-Inkishafi[4], translation from R. Allen (1946) “Inkishafi—a translation from the Swahili”, in African Studies, volume 5, number 4, →DOI, pages 243–249, stanza 11:
      مُيُ وَاغُ نِنِ هُزُدُكَانِ ، لِكُغُرِيِلُ هِيْلَ نِنْنِ ،
      Moyo wangu nini huzundukani, likughuriyelo hela ni-n'ni?
      Soul, why not awake? Hi! what is it that cheats you?
Usage notes[edit]

Borrowed verbs with indicative form not ending in -a do not take this suffix.

See also[edit]

Swahili TAM markers
Initial
Positive infinitive ku-/kw-1
Negative infinitive kuto-
Habitual hu-1
Telegrammic ka-1
Final
General (positive indicative) -a
Positive subjunctive -e
Negative present -i
Second person plural -ni
Infix position
positive subject concord
Positive past -li-
Positive present -na-
Positive future -ta-
Negative subjunctive -si-1
Positive present conditional -nge-
Negative present conditional -singe-
Positive past conditional -ngali-
Negative past conditional -singali-
Gnomic -a-1
Perfect -me-
"Already" past -lisha-
"Already" present -mesha-/-sha-
"If/When" -ki-1
"If not" -sipo-
Consecutive -ka-1
Infix position
negative subject concord
Negative past -ku-1
Negative future -ta-
"Not yet" -ja-1
Negative present conditional -nge-
Negative past conditional -ngali-
Relative
Past -li-
Present -na-
Future -taka-
Negative -si-
1 Can take stress and therefore does not require -ku-/-kw- in monosyllabic verbs.

Etymology 2[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (after a vowel) -zi

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. (often with spirantization of the preceding consonant) suffix used in nominal forms of verbs, in conjunction with a noun class prefix
    -penda (to love) + ‎-i → ‎mpenzi (lover)
    -andika (to write) + ‎-i → ‎maandishi (writing, script)

See also[edit]

Swedish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. -y; when added to one noun, creates a new one that indicates the use or activity of the first. See also -eri.

Derived terms[edit]

Tagalog[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i (verb-forming suffix, Baybayin spelling ) (Batangas, Quezon, Marinduque)

  1. imperative suffix, usually equals to "-in/-an mo" in Standard Tagalog and other dialects
    Buksi yung pinto!
    Open the door!

Derived terms[edit]

  • Category Tagalog terms suffixed with -i not found

Turkish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Ottoman Turkish ـی (-i), from Proto-Turkic *-ni (accusative suffix).

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Accusative suffix.
    gelin + ‎-i → ‎gelini
Usage notes[edit]
  • It is used only when the word's last vowel is "e" or "i". It may change into "", "-u" and "" according to the last vowel of the word. (possession suffix)
    kız + ‎-i → ‎kızı (the last vowel is "a" or "ı")
    yol + ‎-i → ‎yolu (the last vowel is "o" or "u")
    yüz + ‎-i → ‎yüzü (the last vowel is "ö" or "ü")
  • If the word ends in "p", "ç", "t", "k", "nk", "g", or "f", they may change into "b", "c", "d", "ğ", "ng", "bb", "tt", "kk", "ff".
    sebep + ‎-i → ‎sebebi
    çekiç + ‎-i → ‎çekici
    senet + ‎-i → ‎senedi
    çiçek + ‎-i → ‎çiçeği
    renk + ‎-i → ‎rengi
    psikolog + ‎-i → ‎psikoloğu
    tıp + ‎-i → ‎tıbbı
    hat + ‎-i → ‎hattı
    hak + ‎-i → ‎hakkı
    af + ‎-i → ‎affı
  • Some words may lose their final vowel when this suffix is attached.
    gönül + ‎-i → ‎gönlü
    metin + ‎-i → ‎metni
    akıl + ‎-i → ‎aklı
    fikir + ‎-i → ‎fikri
  • If the word ends in a vowel, it is used with an auxiliary consonant "y":
    kedi + ‎-i → ‎kediyi
  • It must be used with an apostrophe if it is appended to a proper noun.
    Zafer + ‎-i → ‎Zafer'i
    Ali + ‎-i → ‎Ali'yi

Etymology 2[edit]

Inherited from Ottoman Turkish ـی (-i), from Proto-Turkic *-si (third-person singular possessive suffix).

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Third-person singular possessive suffix denoting singular possession.
    ev (house) + ‎-i → ‎evi (his/her/its house)
    ofis (office) + ‎-i → ‎ofisi (his/her/its office)
Usage notes[edit]

The preceding usage notes also apply to this suffix, with one difference only:

  • If the word ends in a vowel, it is used with the auxiliary consonant "s" (not "y"):
    kedi + ‎-i → ‎kedisi
    Ali + ‎-i → ‎Ali'si
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Inherited from Ottoman Turkish ی (-i), from Proto-Turkic *-ig.

Suffix[edit]

preceding vowel
A / I E / İ O / U Ö / Ü
-i -u

-i

  1. Suffix creating nouns out of verbs
    ver- (to give) + ‎-i → ‎veri (data)
    diz- (to align) + ‎-i → ‎dizi (sequence, set, series)
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Inherited from Ottoman Turkish ـی (), from Arabic ـِيّ (-iyy)

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. The nisba suffix, an extremely productive suffix used to derive adjectives (with the meaning “related to ...”) or nouns (with the meaning “person related to ...”) from other nouns.
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

Inherited from Ottoman Turkish ـی (-i), from Persian ـی.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Persian suffix creating abstract nouns from nouns or adjectives
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 6[edit]

Inherited from Ottoman Turkish ـِ (-i), from Classical Persian ـِ (-i).

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. The ezafe particle.

Further reading[edit]

Uzbek[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Third-person singular possessive suffix. Used after a noun ending in a consonant. It has the same meaning as uning (its) placed before a noun. Also used to form definite accusative forms of nouns.
    Bu kitobi.
    This is its book.

Veps[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-ja.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. -er; forms agent nouns from verbs.
Usage notes[edit]

When attached to a verb with a stem in -e-, this becomes -ii.

Inflection[edit]
Inflection of -i (inflection type 7/pedai)
nominative sing. -i
genitive sing. -jan
partitive sing. -jad
partitive plur. -jid
singular plural
nominative -i -jad
accusative -jan -jad
genitive -jan -jiden
partitive -jad -jid
essive-instructive -jan -jin
translative -jaks -jikš
inessive -jas -jiš
elative -jaspäi -jišpäi
illative -jaha -jihe
adessive -jal -jil
ablative -jalpäi -jilpäi
allative -jale -jile
abessive -jata -jita
comitative -janke -jidenke
prolative -jadme -jidme
approximative I -janno -jidenno
approximative II -jannoks -jidennoks
egressive -jannopäi -jidennopäi
terminative I -jahasai -jihesai
terminative II -jalesai -jilesai
terminative III -jassai
additive I -jahapäi -jihepäi
additive II -jalepäi -jilepäi
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Adjectival/participal use of the agent noun suffix above.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. -ing; forms the present active participle of verbs.
Usage notes[edit]

When attached to a verb with a stem in -e-, this becomes -ii.

Inflection[edit]
Inflection of -i (inflection type 7/pedai)
nominative sing. -i
genitive sing. -jan
partitive sing. -jad
partitive plur. -jid
singular plural
nominative -i -jad
accusative -jan -jad
genitive -jan -jiden
partitive -jad -jid
essive-instructive -jan -jin
translative -jaks -jikš
inessive -jas -jiš
elative -jaspäi -jišpäi
illative -jaha -jihe
adessive -jal -jil
ablative -jalpäi -jilpäi
allative -jale -jile
abessive -jata -jita
comitative -janke -jidenke
prolative -jadme -jidme
approximative I -janno -jidenno
approximative II -jannoks -jidennoks
egressive -jannopäi -jidennopäi
terminative I -jahasai -jihesai
terminative II -jalesai -jilesai
terminative III -jassai
additive I -jahapäi -jihepäi
additive II -jalepäi -jilepäi
Derived terms[edit]
Category Veps present active participles not found

Volapük[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. A morpheme used to mark the accusative singular of a word (such as a noun or pronoun).
    Dog beiton mani. / Mani beiton dog
    The dog bites the man.
    Mot löfof omi. / Omi löfof mot. (a.s., hicili, soni, u higaaporn).
    The mother loves him. (e.g. the (male) child, son, or (male) lovebird).

Welsh[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Brythonic *-i, from Proto-Celtic *-esa, plural ending of neuter s-stems like *tegos (house) (whence Welsh , plural tai < *tegos, plural *tegesa).[1] Cognate with Cornish -i.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Pluralisation suffix
    Synonyms: -aid, -aint, -au, -ed, -edd, -en, -iadau, -iaid, -iau, -ion, -od, -oedd, -on, -ydd, -yr, -ys
    plwyf (parish) + ‎-i → ‎plwyfi (parishes)
    maen (stone) + ‎-i → ‎meini (stones)
    toiled (toilet) + ‎-i → ‎toiledi (toilets)

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Welsh -im, from Proto-Brythonic *-iβ̃.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Forms verbnouns from verb stems.
    Synonyms: -o, -u
Usage notes[edit]

This suffix is mostly used for verbs where the stem ends in the consonant w (though for some such verbs, such as cadw, the verbnoun is given by the stem without a suffix) or the vowel in the last syllable is o, oe, or sometimes a.[2]

Etymology 3[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. forming abstract nouns, -ness, -ment
    diog (lazy) + ‎-i → ‎diogi (laziness)
    truan (poor, wretched) + ‎-i → ‎trueni (pity, shame)
    tlawd (poor) + ‎-i → ‎tlodi (poverty)
Usage notes[edit]

-i causes i-affection of internal vowels.

Etymology 4[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. used to form pet names
    Wil + ‎-i → ‎Wili
    Siân + ‎-i → ‎Siani
    mam (mother, mum) + ‎-i → ‎mami (mummy)

Etymology 5[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. (literary) verb suffix for the second-person singular present indicative/future
  2. (colloquial) verb suffix for the second-person singular future
Usage notes[edit]

In the literary language, -i causes i-affection of internal vowels, for example, ‎canu (to sing) + ‎-i → ‎ceni (you sing, you will sing).

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Schrijver, Peter C. H. (1995) Studies in British Celtic historical phonology (Leiden studies in Indo-European; 5), Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi, page 393
  2. ^ Morris Jones, John (1913) A Welsh Grammar, Historical and Comparative, Oxford: Clarendon Press, § 202 v.

Ye'kwana[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Unknown; unlike the other possessive suffixes found in the language, -i has no known cognates in any other Cariban language.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Marks a noun as possessed; used mostly with nouns referring to instruments, technologies, and manufactured products, and also with all loanwords.

Etymology 2[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • -∅ (allophone after diphthongal i)

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Forms the singular of the recent past perfective tense.
  2. Forms the singular of the distant past perfective tense when both the agent and patient (if there is one) of the verb are third-person.
Usage notes[edit]

This suffix does not cause syllable reduction. When it attaches to a stem that ends in a vowel followed by i, this suffix is unrealized (disappears).

The second sense can be readily distinguished from the first because it requires the distant-past third-person marker kün- instead of ordinary person markers.

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Possibly of the same origin as the previous suffix.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Forms the prohibitive mood.
Usage notes[edit]

When the patient/object of a verb with this suffix is third-person, or when the object/patient is first-person and the subject/agent is second-person, it must also take the prefix ön- (or one of its allomorphs) after the person marker. However, this prefix is not found when the object/patient is first-person and the subject/agent is third-person.

References[edit]

  • Cáceres, Natalia (2011) “-i”, in Grammaire Fonctionnelle-Typologique du Ye’kwana[5], Lyon, pages 112–113, 204–206, 213–222, 233

Zulu[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *-ì.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Forms agent nouns from verbs.

Usage notes[edit]

The suffix replaces the -a inherent in the verb stem.

Derived terms[edit]