-i

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English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From the Arabic nisba suffix ـِيّ(-iyy). In English productive from the 19th century.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Used to form adjectives and nouns describing people of a particular city, region, or country, and the language spoken by these people.
    Iraq + ‎-i → ‎Iraqi
    Israel + ‎-i → ‎Israeli
    Pakistan + ‎-i → ‎Pakistani
    Bengal + ‎-i → ‎Bengali
    Nepal + ‎-i → ‎Nepali
    Desh + ‎-i → ‎Desi
Translations[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • OED, s.v. "-i, suffix2".

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin , the plural ending of the Latin second declension, whence the plural of Italian nouns in -o and -e.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. used to indicate a plural form of some words of Latin or Italian origin, such as fungi, virtuosi or concerti

References[edit]

  • OED, s.v. "-i, suffix1".

Afar[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i or

  1. Used to create nouns from class I verbs, denoting either the agent or the instrument of the action.

Usage notes[edit]

  • Used together with the prefix t- to create feminine nouns. The stress will shift to the last syllable.
  • Used together with the prefix y- to create masculine nouns. The stress will not be on the last syllable.

References[edit]

  • Mohamed Hassan Kamil (2015) L’afar: description grammaticale d’une langue couchitique (Djibouti, Erythrée et Ethiopie)[1], Paris: Université Sorbonne Paris Cité (doctoral thesis), page 118

Albanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From the ending Proto-Indo-European *-osyo. cognate to Messapic -aihi.[1][2][3]. Related to Albanian i (of, the, to).

Pronunciation[edit]

Article[edit]

-i m

  1. masculine singular nominative suffixed definite article: the
    malësor (highlander) + ‎-i → ‎malësori (the highlander)
    mal (mountain) + ‎-i → ‎mali (the mountain)

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Matzinger 2015, pp. 62–66
  2. ^ Ismajli 2015, pp. 65–68.
  3. ^ Matzinger, Joachim (2017). "The Lexicon of Albanian". In Klein, Jared; Joseph, Brian; Fritz, Matthias (eds.). Handbook of Comparative and Historical Indo-European Linguistics. 3. Walter de Gruyter.

Chuukese[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. added to intransitive verbs to make them transitive
  2. (added to transitive verbs) him, her, it (third person singular indirect object)

Usage notes[edit]

  • In Chuukese, transitive verbs in their base form already have the third person singular indirect object implied on them, although the suffix -i can be added for emphasis.

Esperanto[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Perhaps from Latin deponent verbs such as loquī (to speak).

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. verbal inflection marking the infinitive

Etymology 2[edit]

Common to English e (pronounced [i]) in me, she, he, we and the Italian accusative pronouns mi, ti, vi, li, si.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. common vowel of personal pronouns: mi, ni, ci, vi, li, ŝi, ĝi, oni, ili, si.

Estonian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-in.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Forms nouns from verbs, indicating instruments (tools) are used to perform that verb's action.

Inflection[edit]

Or less commonly:

Derived terms[edit]


Finnish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From the fusion of Proto-Uralic *-j with a stem vowel. Originally allomorphic with -o.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. A nominal suffix used in eg. ukko (man)ukki (grandfather).
  2. (archaic) Used to mark the first part of a compound word, e.g. lehmä (cow)lehmi-.
Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-i, *-ik, perhaps from earlier *-j.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Derives a number of adverbs of generally lative or locative meaning, e.g. aukea- (to open)auki (open), ylä- (upper, high)yli (over).
Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]


German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [i]
  • (file)

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. suffix sometimes used to create a diminutive form
    Hans + ‎-i → ‎Hansi
  2. suffix sometimes used to create a short form
    Spastiker + ‎-i → ‎Spasti

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]


Gothic[edit]

Romanization[edit]

-i

  1. Romanization of -𐌹

Greenlandic[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i (v-v?, truncative?)

  1. Intransitivizes.

Usage notes[edit]

Sometimes additive after r stems.

Many verbs are intransitivized simply by changing the inflectional ending, without changing the stem; of those that do use an affix, it is not predictable which of -i, -nnig, -ller and -si are used. Also, verbs may use more than one of these, with similarly unpredictable results (e.g. errorsivoq (wash clothes) vs. erruivoq (do dishes), both from errorpaa). If a verb uses one of these affixes, the unaffixed intransitive form may be passive, reciprocal or reflexive w.r.t. the transitive form.

Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]


Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Adjective-forming suffix.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. (adjective-forming suffix) Added to a proper noun, noun or postposition to form an adjective.
    Amerika (America)amerikai (American)
    város (city)városi (urban)
    Freud (Freud)freudi (Freudian)
    az ablak alatt (under the window)az ablak alatti szék (the chair under the window)
Usage notes[edit]
  • Final -o and (which only occur in non-Hungarian words) change to and .[1]
    Oslooslói (Oslovian)
    Malmömalmői (Malmö-based)
    Victor HugoVictor Hugó-i (Hugolian, Hugonian, Hugoesque)
  • If the suffix -i were to follow word-final -i, only one is retained (so one needs to know the original form).[2][3]
    Helsinkihelsinki (Helsinkian)
    Zamárdi (a town in Somogy County, Hungary)zamárdi (from Zamárdi, in theory, it could also derive from a non-existent *Zamárd)
  • The other word-final short vowels (a, e, u, ü) remain unchanged (just like long ones and consonants).
    Prága (Prague)prágai (Praguian)
    Goethegoethei (Goethean)
    Peruperui (Peruvian)
    Öskü (a village in Veszprém County, Hungary)ösküi (from Öskü)
  • The fact that word-final a and e remain short before the adjective-forming -i often becomes distinctive against the multiple-possession possessives of words that end in a and e, e.g. formai (formal) and formái (his/her/its forms) or megyei (county-level) and megyéi (his/her/its counties).
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Possessive plural.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. possessive suffix for multiple possessions
    1. (with no noun for possessor) his, her, its ……-s (third-person singular; the pronoun ő (s/he) being optional for emphasis)
      kapu (gate)a kapui (his/her/its gates), az ő kapui (his/her gates)
      érme (coins)az érméi (his/her/its coins), az ő érméi (his/her coins)
    2. (with no noun for possessor, formal) your ……-s (second-person singular, grammatically resembling the third person sg.)
      kapu (gate)a kapui (your [formal] gates), az ön kapui, a maga kapui (your [formal] gates)
    3. construed with a noun or certain pronouns as the possessor: ……’s ……-s, ……-s of …… (third-person sg. or pl., depending on the noun or pronoun)
      az ember(nek a) kapuithe person’s gates
      a gyerek(nek az) érméithe child’s coins
      az emberek(nek a) kapuithe people’s gates
      a gyerekek(nek az) érméithe children’s coins
      az önök kapui, a maguk kapuiyour (plural, formal) gates
      azok(nak a) kapuithe gates of those
      ki(k)nek az érméi?whose coins?
Usage notes[edit]
  • (possessive suffix) Variants:
    -i is added to words ending in a vowel except -i. Final -a changes to -á-; final -e changes to -é-. The latter feature distinguishes it from the -i (adjective-forming suffix), which does not lengthen the preceding -a/-e.
    -ai is added to some back-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -ei is added to some front-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -jai is added to some back-vowel words ending in a consonant or the vowel -i
    -jei is added to some front-vowel words ending in a consonant or the vowel -i
    • If the possessed noun is in the plural and the possessor is expressed in English with a possessive pronoun only (rather than a noun), e.g. “their toys” (as opposed to “the children’s toys”), the -ik/-aik/-eik/-jaik/-jeik suffixes are required in Hungarian.

Etymology 3[edit]

Personal suffix.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. (personal suffix) Used to form the definite third-person singular present tense of verbs (indicative mood).
    kér (to request)kéri (he/she asks him/her or for that thing, he/she is asking him/her or for that thing)
Usage notes[edit]
  • (personal suffix) See harmonic variants in the table below.

Etymology 4[edit]

Diminutive suffix.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. (diminutive suffix) Added to nouns, mostly used by the younger generation or in informal conversations.
    fagylaltfagyi (ice cream)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Section 216 in A magyar helyesírás szabályai, 12. kiadás (’The Rules of Hungarian Orthography, 12th edition’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 2015. →ISBN
  2. ^ Section 173 in A magyar helyesírás szabályai, 12. kiadás (’The Rules of Hungarian Orthography, 12th edition’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 2015. →ISBN
  3. ^ Section 215 in A magyar helyesírás szabályai, 12. kiadás (’The Rules of Hungarian Orthography, 12th edition’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 2015. →ISBN

Icelandic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-į̄, cognate with Gothic -𐌴𐌹 (-ei).

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. a nominal suffix, forming abstract nouns

Derived terms[edit]


Ido[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Italian -i, Russian (-i). Also from English -i, used with Latin and Italian borrowings.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. -s; marks the plural form of nouns, by replacing the -o ending
    libro (book) + ‎-i → ‎libri (books)

Indonesian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Malay -i. Cognate of colloquial Indonesian -in.

Suffix[edit]

-i (active imperative -i, active indicative meng- -i, active jussive/optative -ilah, non-accidental passive di- -i, accidental passive ter- -i)

  1. verbal suffix for manipulate, complete, or place the object from a noun.
  2. transitive verbal suffix for causation in surface of the object from a adjective.
  3. transitive verbal suffix for doing activity to the object from a transitive verb.
  4. transitive locative imperative verbal suffix from a noun:
    1. to apply or give [base] to the object.
      Hormati orang tua!honour/respect parent!
    2. to remove [base] from the object.
      kuliti(de)skin, peel
  5. transitive adverbial imperative verbal suffix from a noun: to act as/be [base] with reference to object
    Sutradarai film ini!Direct this movie! (literally, “Become the producer of this film!”)

Etymology 2[edit]

From Malay -i, from Arabic nisba suffix ـِيّ(-iyy).

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. adjectives suffix (with the meaning “related to ...”)
Alternative forms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Italian[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Used with a stem to form the second-person singular present of regular -are, -ere verbs and those -ire verbs that do not take "isc"
  2. Used with a stem to form the second-person imperative of -ere verbs
  3. Used with a stem to form the first-, second- and third-person singular present subjunctive of -are verbs
  4. Used with a stem to form the third-person singular imperative of -are verbs

Latin[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Italic *-ai, from unknown origin.

Suffix[edit]

  1. Used for the first person present perfect singular form of any regular verb.

Etymology 2[edit]

Suffix[edit]

  1. nominative/vocative plural of -us for most second-declension nouns.
  2. genitive/locative singular of -us for second-declension nouns.
  3. nominative/vocative masculine plural of -us for first/second-declension adjectives.
  4. genitive masculine/neuter singular of -us for for first/second-declension adjectives.
  5. (uncommon) genitive feminine singular of -us for for first/second-declension adjectives.

Etymology 3[edit]

Noun[edit]

  1. dative/ablative singular of -ēs

Lepontic[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i (-i)

  1. Romanization of -𐌉

Livvi[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-ja. Cognates include Finnish -ja and Estonian -ja.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Used to form agent nouns from verbs; -er

Declension[edit]

back vowel harmonic front vowel harmonic
Declension of -i (Type 19/lugii, no gradation)
singular plural
nominative -i -jat
genitive -jan -join,
-jiin
partitive -jua -joi,
-jii
illative -jah -joih,
-jiih
inessive -jas -jois,
-jiis
elative -jaspäi -joispäi,
-jiispäi
allative -jale -joile,
-jiile
adessive -jal -joil,
-jiil
ablative -jalpäi -joilpäi,
-jiilpäi
translative -jakse -joikse,
-jiikse
essive -jannu -joinnu,
-jiinnu
abessive -jattah -joittah,
-jiittah
comitative -janke -joinke,
-jiinke
instructive -join,
-jiin
prolative -jači
Declension of -i (Type 20/keittäi, no gradation)
singular plural
nominative -i -jät
genitive -jän -jöin,
-jiin
partitive -jiä -jöi,
-jii
illative -jäh -jöih,
-jiih
inessive -jäs -jöis,
-jiis
elative -jäspäi -jöispäi,
-jiispäi
allative -jäle -jöile,
-jiile
adessive -jäl -jöil,
-jiil
ablative -jälpäi -jöilpäi,
-jiilpäi
translative -jäkse -jöikse,
-jiikse
essive -jänny -jöinny,
-jiinny
abessive -jättäh -jöittäh,
-jiittäh
comitative -jänke -jöinke,
-jiinke
instructive -jöin,
-jiin
prolative -jäči

Derived terms[edit]


Lower Sorbian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • -y (after “hard” consonants)

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *-jь.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. suffix creating an adjective from a noun, denoting ‘of or pertaining to’

Derived terms[edit]


Makasar[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *-i, from Proto-Austronesian *-i.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. suffix forming transitive verbs
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *ia.

Pronoun[edit]

-i (absolutive enclitic)

  1. he, him, she, it, they, them (third person singular and plural)

See also[edit]


Malay[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. locative, repetitive, or exhaustive
    Sayangi Kuala Lumpur.Love Kuala Lumpur.
    Renangi kolam itu.Swim that pool.
  2. (before a person) added to intransitive verbs to make them transitive
    Emak menghadiahi adik sebuah basikal.Mother gives the brother a bicycle.

Synonyms[edit]

  • (before an object) -kan

Derived terms[edit]

Category Malay words suffixed with -i not found

Maltese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Arabic ـِيّ(-iyy).

Suffix[edit]

-i (feminine -ija, plural -in)

  1. a derivational suffix, chiefly creating adjectives from nouns
Usage notes[edit]
  • Note that Romance adjectives in -i are treated differently and do not inflect.
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Sicilian -i. Though -i is not used as a plural ending in Arabic, it was integrated fairly easily as a large number of broken plurals happen to end in this vowel, compare tieqatwieqi, etc.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. a common plural suffix
    1. used in nouns and adjectives in -u
      numru (number)numri (numbers)
      illużorju (illusory)illużorji
    2. used in some nouns in -a, chiefly ones of Romance origin
      frawla (strawberry)frawli (strawberries)
      qawsalla (rainbow)qawsalli (rainbows)
    3. used in some nouns and adjectives in a consonant, chiefly ones of Romance origin
      frisk (fresh)friski
Usage notes[edit]

See also[edit]


Maquiritari[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Unknown; unlike the other possessive suffixes found in the language, -i has no known cognates in any other Cariban language.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Marks a noun as possessed; used mostly with nouns referring to instruments and manufactured products, and also with all loanwords.

Etymology 2[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (allophone after diphthongal i) -∅

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Forms the singular of the recent past perfective tense.
  2. Forms the singular of the distant past perfective tense when both the agent and patient (if there is one) of the verb are third-person.
Usage notes[edit]

This suffix does not cause syllable reduction. When it attaches to a stem that ends in a vowel followed by i, this suffix is unrealized (disappears).

The second sense can be readily distinguished from the first because it requires the distant-past third-person marker kün- instead of ordinary person markers.

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Possibly of the same origin as the previous suffix.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Forms the prohibitive mood.
Usage notes[edit]

When the patient/object of a verb with this suffix is third-person, or when the object/patient is first-person and the subject/agent is second-person, it must also take the prefix ön- (or one of its allomorphs) after the person marker. However, this prefix is not found when the object/patient is first-person and the subject/agent is third-person.

References[edit]

  • Cáceres, Natalia (2011), “-i”, in Grammaire Fonctionnelle-Typologique du Ye’kwana, Lyon, page 112–113, 204–206, 213–222, 233

Middle English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Alternative form of -y.

Etymology 2[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Alternative form of -yf

Namuyi[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Used to give the prospective aspect to verbs

Derived terms[edit]


Norman[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin -īre, the ending of the present active infinitive form of fourth conjugation verbs.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. (Jersey) A suffix forming infinitives of many verbs.

Derived terms[edit]


Northern Sami[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Samic *-jē. Cognate with Finnish -ja.

Suffix[edit]

-i (with odd-syllable stems -eaddji)

  1. Forms agent nouns from verbs.
Usage notes[edit]
  • This suffix triggers the strongest grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

When attached to verbs in -ut, the suffix becomes -u.

Inflection[edit]
Even i-stem, no gradation
Nominative -i
Genitive -i
-ẹ
Singular Plural
Nominative -i -it
Accusative -i -iid
Genitive -i
-ẹ
-iid
Illative -ái -iide
Locative -is -iin
Comitative -iin -iiguin
Essive -in
Possessive forms
Singular Dual Plural
1st person -án -áme -ámet
2nd person -át -áde -ádet
3rd person -is -iska -iset
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Samic *-ŋë. Cognate with Finnish -va.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Forms adjectives indicating an abundance of something.
    geađgi (stone) + ‎-i → ‎geađgái (stony)
    vuodja (fat) + ‎-i → ‎vuddjii (rich in fat)
Inflection[edit]
Odd, no gradation
Nominative -i
Genitive -ja
Singular Plural
Nominative -i -jat
Accusative -ja -jiid
Genitive -ja -jiid
Illative -jii -jiidda
Locative -jis -jiin
Comitative -jiin -jiiguin
Essive -jin
Possessive forms
Singular Dual Plural
1st person -jan -jeamẹ -jeamẹt
2nd person -jat -jeattẹ -jeattẹt
3rd person -jis -jeaskkạ -jeasẹt
Usage notes[edit]
  • This suffix triggers the strongest grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

Phonologically, the suffix is actually the consonant j, and so it forms a diphthong with the final vowel of the base word's stem rather than replacing that vowel. Thus, the resulting word is essentially identical to the illative singular form. The noun declines as a contracted stem, with the inflectional stem lacking the -i.

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. The ending of the illative singular case.
Usage notes[edit]
  • This suffix triggers the strong grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

When possessive suffixes are attached, the suffix changes to the form -s- (for even-syllable stems) or -sa- (for odd-syllable stems).


Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. (non-standard since 2012) Used to form past participle of strong verbs.
  2. (non-standard since 2012) Used to form singular definite form for strong feminine nouns.
  3. (non-standard since 2012) Used to form plural definite form for neuter nouns.
  4. (non-standard since 2012) Used to form feminine singular indefinite form for many adjectives.
  5. (non-standard since 2012) Used to form neuter singular indefinite form for many adjectives.

Ojibwe[edit]

Final[edit]

-i

  1. be such a number, such an amount

Derived terms[edit]

Final[edit]

-i

  1. occurs after initials to form animate intransitive verbs (vai)

Derived terms[edit]

Final[edit]

-i

  1. occurs in inanimate intransitive verbs (vii)

Derived terms[edit]

Final[edit]

-i

  1. occurs in some uninflected words, including preverbs

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]


Old High German[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-į̄.

Suffix[edit]

  1. productive suffix used to form abstract nouns from adjectives
    manag (many) + ‎-i → ‎menigī, managī (crowd, amount)
    tiuf (deep) + ‎-i → ‎tiufī (depth)
    finstar (dark) + ‎-i → ‎finstrī, finstarī (darkness)
    hōh (high) + ‎-i → ‎hōhī (height)
    lang (long) + ‎-i → ‎lengī (length)
    breit (broad) + ‎-i → ‎breitī (breadth)
Declension[edit]

Female n-declension

Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]
  • Middle High German: -e
    • German: -e

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-īniz. Cognate to Gothic -𐌴𐌹𐌽𐍃 (-eins).

Suffix[edit]

  1. non-productive suffix used to form action nouns from weak verbs
    toufen (to baptise) + ‎-i → ‎toufī (baptism)
    wellen (to choose) + ‎-i → ‎welī (choice)
Usage notes[edit]

In Old High German, this suffix is neither frequent nor productive. Many weak verbs have action nouns with -unga instead.

Declension[edit]

Female n-declension


Old Irish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i (suffixed pronoun)

  1. him
  2. it (object pronoun)

Usage notes[edit]

This suffix is used only after third-person singular forms. After 1st person singular forms in -(e)a, 1st person plural forms in -mi, and 3rd person plural forms in -(a)it, the suffix -it is sometimes used.

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]


Old Norse[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-į̄, cognate with Gothic -𐌴𐌹 (-ei).

Suffix[edit]

-i f

  1. -th. Forms abstract nouns from adjectives which represent 'the state, quality or measure of' the adjective.
Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-ô, cognate with Gothic -𐌰 (-a).

Suffix[edit]

-i m

  1. Forms agent nouns, often from the zero-grade form of the base.
    Synonym: -ari
Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Phalura[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Feminine agreement suffix

References[edit]

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[2], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN

Etymology 2[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Feminine agreement suffix

References[edit]

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[3], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN

Polish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *-jь.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i m

  1. Forms masculine adjectives meaning "belonging to", especially for animals
    koza + ‎-i → ‎kozi
    kot + ‎-i → ‎koci
    pies + ‎-i → ‎psi
  2. Forms masculine adjectives derived from prepoisitional phrases
    noga + ‎-i → ‎beznogi

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • -i in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • -i in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Portuguese[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. forms the 2nd-person plural affirmative imperative of 3rd conjugation verbs; appended to the stem
    Parti em paz.
    Go in peace.

Usage notes[edit]

Like every other 2nd-person plural conjugation, its use is archaic.

Related terms[edit]

  • -ei (affirmative imperative for 2nd-conjugation verbs)
  • -ai (affirmative imperative for 1st-conjugation verbs and negative imperative for 3rd-conjugation verbs)

Romani[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Forms the nominative singular of vocalic oikoclitic feminine nouns
  2. Forms the nominative feminine singular of vocalic oikoclitic adjectives
  3. Attaches to the perfective stem to form the third-person singular feminine past tense of intransitive verbs

Romanian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin (second-declension plural ending)

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Used to form plurals
Usage notes[edit]
  • This form of the plural is indefinite, and used for masculine nouns in the nominative/accusative and genitive/dative cases, regardless of singular form. The suffix may cause phonetic changes or vowel deletion (or both):
  • lup + ‎-i → ‎lupi
  • tată + ‎-i → ‎tați
  • fiu + ‎-i → ‎fii
  • frate + ‎-i → ‎frați
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin illī, nominative masculine plural of ille.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i m

  1. (definite article) the (masculine plural, nominative and accusative)
Usage notes[edit]

This form of the definite article is used for masculine plural nouns in the nominative and accusative cases (as attached to the indefinite plural, which always ends in a vowel):

The suffix is also used with masculine and neuter singular plural adjectives in the nominative and accusative cases to make the articulated definite form, often for emphasis, and it is used before the noun it modifies.

Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]
  • -l (masculine/neuter singular nominative and accusative)
  • -a (feminine singular nominative and accusative)
  • -le (feminine plural nominative and accusative)
  • -lui (masculine/neuter singular genitive and dative)
  • -ei (feminine singular genitive and dative)
  • -lor (plural genitive and dative)

Etymology 3[edit]

From Latin -īre, the ending of the present active infinitive form of fourth conjugation verbs. Cognate with Spanish and French -ir, Italian -ire, etc.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. A suffix forming infinitives of many verbs.
Usage notes[edit]
  • Most verbs with infinitives in -i are marked by the once-inchoative infix -esc- in many parts of their conjugation, as well as in various derived words; two such verbs are vorbi (to say) and iubi (to love).
  • A sizable group of verbs have infinitives in -i but do not use the infix -esc-, and are otherwise fairly regular; these include, among others, the common verb dormi (sleep), simți (feel), auzi (hear).
  • There is a variant form, , derived from the same Latin source.
Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

From e (is).

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. is
Derived terms[edit]

Skolt Sami[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Samic *-jē.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Forms agent nouns from verbs.
Inflection[edit]

This noun needs an inflection-table template.

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Samic *-ŋë.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Forms adjectives indicating an abundance of something.
Inflection[edit]

This adjective needs an inflection-table template.

Usage notes[edit]

Phonologically, the suffix is actually the consonant j, and so it forms a diphthong with the final vowel of the base word's stem rather than replacing that vowel.

Derived terms[edit]

Swedish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. -y; when added to one noun, creates a new one that indicates the use or activity of the first. See also -eri.

Derived terms[edit]


Tagalog[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. (Batangas) imperative suffix, usually equals to "-in/-an mo" in Standard Tagalog and other dialects
    Buksi yung pinto!
    Open the door!

Derived terms[edit]

  • Category Tagalog words suffixed with -i not found

Turkish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Third-person singular possessive suffix denoting singular possession.
    ev (house) + ‎-i → ‎evi (his/her/its house)
    ofis (office) + ‎-i → ‎ofisi (his/her/its office)
  2. Accusative suffix.
    gelin + ‎-i → ‎gelini

Usage notes[edit]

  • It's used only when the word's last vowel is "e" or "i". It may change into "", "-u" and "" according to the last vowel of the word. (possession suffix)
    kız + ‎-i → ‎kızı (the last vowel is "a" or "ı")
    yol + ‎-i → ‎yolu (the last vowel is "o" or "u")
    yüz + ‎-i → ‎yüzü (the last vowel is "ö" or "ü")
  • If the word ends in "p", "ç", "t" or "k", it may change them into "b", "c", "d" and "ğ".
    sebep + ‎-i → ‎sebebi
    çekiç + ‎-i → ‎çekici
    senet + ‎-i → ‎senedi
    çiçek + ‎-i → ‎çiçeği
  • If the word ends in a vowel, it's used with an auxiliary consonant; "y" for the accusative case suffix and "s" for the possessive suffix
    kedi + ‎-i → ‎kediyi
    kedi + ‎-i → ‎kedisi
  • It must be used with an apostrophe if it is appended to a proper noun.
    Zafer + ‎-i → ‎Zafer'i
    Ali + ‎-i → ‎Ali'yi / Ali'si

See Persian Ezafe


Uzbek[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Third-person singular possessive suffix. Used after a noun ending in a consonant. It has the same meaning as uning (its) placed before a noun. Also used to form definite accusative forms of nouns.
    Bu kitobi.
    This is its book.

Veps[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-ja.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. -er; forms agent nouns from verbs.
Usage notes[edit]

When attached to a verb with a stem in -e-, this becomes -ii.

Inflection[edit]
Inflection of -i
nominative sing. -i
genitive sing. -jan
partitive sing. -jad
partitive plur. -jid
singular plural
nominative -i -jad
accusative -jan -jad
genitive -jan -jiden
partitive -jad -jid
essive-instructive -jan -jin
translative -jaks -jikš
inessive -jas -jiš
elative -jaspäi -jišpäi
illative ? -jihe
adessive -jal -jil
ablative -jalpäi -jilpäi
allative -jale -jile
abessive -jata -jita
comitative -janke -jidenke
prolative -jadme -jidme
approximative I -janno -jidenno
approximative II -jannoks -jidennoks
egressive -jannopäi -jidennopäi
terminative I ? -jihesai
terminative II -jalesai -jilesai
terminative III -jassai
additive I ? -jihepäi
additive II -jalepäi -jilepäi
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Adjectival/participal use of the agent noun suffix above.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. -ing; forms the present active participle of verbs.
Usage notes[edit]

When attached to a verb with a stem in -e-, this becomes -ii.

Inflection[edit]
Inflection of -i
nominative sing. -i
genitive sing. -jan
partitive sing. -jad
partitive plur. -jid
singular plural
nominative -i -jad
accusative -jan -jad
genitive -jan -jiden
partitive -jad -jid
essive-instructive -jan -jin
translative -jaks -jikš
inessive -jas -jiš
elative -jaspäi -jišpäi
illative ? -jihe
adessive -jal -jil
ablative -jalpäi -jilpäi
allative -jale -jile
abessive -jata -jita
comitative -janke -jidenke
prolative -jadme -jidme
approximative I -janno -jidenno
approximative II -jannoks -jidennoks
egressive -jannopäi -jidennopäi
terminative I ? -jihesai
terminative II -jalesai -jilesai
terminative III -jassai
additive I ? -jihepäi
additive II -jalepäi -jilepäi
Derived terms[edit]
Category Veps present active participles not found

Volapük[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. A morpheme used to mark the accusative singular of a word (such as a noun or pronoun).
    Dog beiton mani. / Mani beiton dog
    The dog bites the man.
    Mot löfof omi. / Omi löfof mot. (a.s., hicili, soni, u higaaporn).
    The mother loves him. (e.g. the (male) child, son, or (male) lovebird).

Welsh[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Cognate with Cornish -i and Irish .

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Pluralisation suffix
    plwyf (parish) + ‎-i → ‎plwyfi (parishes)
    maen (stone) + ‎-i → ‎meini (stones)
    toiled (toilet) + ‎-i → ‎toiledi (toilets)
    Synonyms: -aid, -aint, -au, -ed, -edd, -en, -iadau, -iaid, -iau, -ion, -od, -oedd, -on, -ydd, -yr, -ys

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Welsh -im, from Proto-Brythonic *-iβ̃.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Forms verbnouns from verb stems.
    Synonyms: -o, -u
Usage notes[edit]

This suffix is mostly used for verbs where the stem ends in the consonant w (though for some such verbs, such as cadw, the verbnoun is given by the stem without a suffix) or the vowel in the last syllable is o, oe, or sometimes a.[1]

Etymology 3[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. forming abstract nouns, -ness, -ment
    diog (lazy) + ‎-i → ‎diogi (laziness)
    truan (poor, wretched) + ‎-i → ‎trueni (pity, shame)
    tlawd (poor) + ‎-i → ‎tlodi (poverty)
Usage notes[edit]

-i causes i-affection of internal vowels.

Etymology 4[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. used to form pet names
    Wil + ‎-i → ‎Wili
    Siân + ‎-i → ‎Siani
    mam (mother, mum) + ‎-i → ‎mami (mummy)

Etymology 5[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. (literary) verb suffix for the second-person singular present indicative/future
  2. (colloquial) verb suffix for the second-person singular future
Usage notes[edit]

In the literary language, -i causes i-affection of internal vowels, for example, ‎canu (to sing) + ‎-i → ‎ceni (you sing, you will sing).

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Morris Jones, John (1913) A Welsh Grammar, Historical and Comparative, Oxford: Clarendon Press, § 202 v.

Zulu[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *-ì.

Suffix[edit]

-i

  1. Forms agent nouns from verbs.

Usage notes[edit]

The suffix replaces the -a inherent in the verb stem.

Derived terms[edit]