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See also: Appendix:Variations of "ko"
-kö (enclitic particle)
- front vowel harmonic form of -ko
- Front-vowel variant of -ko
- Forms the imperative mood.
This suffix can cause syllable reduction.
Verbs with this suffix display three different sets of person markers depending on their transitivity:
- Transitive verbs take the series II marker y- when the object/patient is third-person, but the series I marker k- when the object/patient is first-person. In the former case they can take the plural marker -to after the suffix; in the latter, -tö before the suffix.
- Agentive intransitive verbs take no person markers. They can, however, take the plural marker -tö with a non-third-person object.
- Patientive intransitive verbs take the second-person marker ö- and can also take the plural marker -tö.
Each type of verb can also take a suffix -'de after the imperative suffix to form a delayed imperative.
- Marks the distant past imperfective tense when both the agent and patient (if there is one) of the verb are third-person.
This suffix can cause syllable reduction. It never occurs alone but is always accompanied by at least the past imperfective marker -a preceding it.
- Cáceres, Natalia (2011) Grammaire Fonctionnelle-Typologique du Ye’kwana, Lyon, page 213–222, 228–231