-ke

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Dutch[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From earlier -ken, from Middle Dutch -ken, -kin, -kijn, apparently representing Proto-Germanic *-ukīną, a double diminutive, from *-ukaz. The standard Dutch -tje and its variants are derived from -ke(n) through palatalization.

Cognate with German -chen, Low German -ken, English -kin, -ock.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ke n ‎(plural -kes)

  1. Appended to a noun, making it diminutive.

Estonian[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ke ‎(genitive -kese, partitive -kest)

  1. A noun suffix that builds diminutives from nouns.
  • kivi (stone) → kivike (a small stone)

Declension[edit]

This noun needs an inflection-table template.


Finnish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ke

  1. Forms diminutive forms of nouns.
    aalto ‎(wave) → aalloke ‎(wavelet)
    siipi ‎(wing) → siiveke ‎(aileron)
    lause ‎(sentence) → lauseke ‎(expression; phrase)
  2. Forms nouns from verbs, often to describe the result of an action.
    elää ‎(to live) → eläke ‎(pension)
    seisahtaa ‎(to come to a standstill) → seisake ‎(railway stop)
  3. (rare) Forms nouns from adjectives.
    lämmin ‎(warm) → lämmike ‎(something used to warm up)

Derived terms[edit]


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • § 257 ke-sanojen koostumus ja merkitys, Iso suomen kielioppi, 2004[1]

German Low German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Compare German -chen, Dutch -ke.

Suffix[edit]

-ke

  1. (Low Prussian) Suffix used to form the diminutive of nouns and hypocoristic forms of proper nouns and other parts of speech.
    Brotke
    bread
    Anke
    Annie
    Gottke
    God
    kommke
    come (second-person singular present imperative, hypocoristic)

References[edit]

  • Erhard Riemann (et al.), Preußisches Wörterbuch: deutsche Mundarten Ost- und Westpreußens (1974)
  • A. Treichel, Dialectische Räthsel, Reime und Märchen aus dem Ermlande, in the Altpreussische Monatsschrift, volume 27 (1890)
  • H. Frischbier, Preussisches Wörterbuch, Ost- und westpreussische Provinzialismen, volume 1, A-K (1882)
  • H. Frischbier, Preussisches Wörterbuch, Ost- und westpreussische Provinzialismen, volume 2, L-Z (1883)

Hungarian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finno-Ugric, compare to Finnish -kka.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ke

  1. (diminutive suffix) Added to a word to express smallness, youth, unimportance, or endearment. When added to present participles, it can also express the instrument or place of the action indicated in the base word.
    egy ‎(one) → egyke ‎(only child)
    egér ‎(mouse) → egérke ‎(tiny mouse)
    ül ‎(to sit) → ülő ‎(sitting) → ülőke ‎(seat, small seat)

Usage notes[edit]

  • (diminutive suffix) Harmonic variants:
    -ka is added to back vowel words
    -ke is added to front vowel words

Derived terms[edit]


See also[edit]