-ke

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Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Dutch -ke, -ken, -kijn, from Proto-Germanic *-ukīną. This suffix is a double diminutive representing two distinct Germanic suffixes, *-uk- + *-īn-. This -īn- suffix is also used (with an additional -l-) in German -lein. Cognate with German -chen and regional German -ken. Dutch -tje and -ken are cognate variants. More at -ock, -en.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ke n (plural -kes)

  1. Appended to a noun, making it diminutive.

Usage notes[edit]

This suffix is primarily dialectal, official Dutch almost exclusively uses the related suffix -tje and varieties.

References[edit]

  1. ^ A. van Loey, "Schönfeld's Historische Grammatica van het Nederlands", Zutphen, 8. druk, 1970, ISBN 90-03-21170-1; §185

Estonian[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ke (genitive -kese, partitive -kest)

  1. A noun suffix that builds diminutives from nouns.
  • kivi (stone) → kivike (a small stone)

Declension[edit]

This noun needs an inflection-table template.


Finnish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ke

  1. Forms diminutive forms of nouns.
    aalto (wave) → aalloke (wavelet)
    siipi (wing) → siiveke (aileron)
    lause (sentence) → lauseke (expression; phrase)
  2. Forms nouns from verbs, often to describe the result of an action.
    elää (to live) → eläke (pension)
    seisahtaa (to come to a standstill) → seisake (railway stop)
  3. (rare) Forms nouns from adjectives.
    lämmin (warm) → lämmike (something used to warm up)

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • § 257 ke-sanojen koostumus ja merkitys, Iso suomen kielioppi, 2004[1]

German Low German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Compare German -chen, Dutch -ke.

Suffix[edit]

-ke

  1. (Low Prussian) Suffix used to form the diminutive of nouns and hypocoristic forms of proper nouns and other parts of speech.
    Brotke
    bread
    Anke
    Annie
    Gottke
    God
    kommke
    come (second-person singular present imperative, hypocoristic)

References[edit]

  • Erhard Riemann (et al.), Preußisches Wörterbuch: deutsche Mundarten Ost- und Westpreußens (1974)
  • A. Treichel, Dialectische Räthsel, Reime und Märchen aus dem Ermlande, in the Altpreussische Monatsschrift, volume 27 (1890)
  • H. Frischbier, Preussisches Wörterbuch, Ost- und westpreussische Provinzialismen, volume 1, A-K (1882)
  • H. Frischbier, Preussisches Wörterbuch, Ost- und westpreussische Provinzialismen, volume 2, L-Z (1883)

Hungarian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finno-Ugric, compare to Finnish -kka.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ke

  1. (diminutive suffix) Added to a word to express smallness, youth, unimportance, or endearment. When added to present participles, it can also express the instrument or place of the action indicated in the base word.
    egy (one) → egyke (only child)
    egér (mouse) → egérke (tiny mouse)
    ül (to sit) → ülő (sitting) → ülőke (seat, small seat)

Usage notes[edit]

  • (diminutive suffix) Harmonic variants:
    -ka is added to back vowel words
    -ke is added to front vowel words

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]