-mpi

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Finnish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-mpi

  1. Forms comparative adjectives.
    heikko weak -> heikompi
    matala low, shallow -> matalampi
    ruma ugly -> rumempi
    suuri great, big -> suurempi
  2. Forms adjectives that indicate relative location from some nouns that indicate location. In most of these cases the noun has disappeared from the language as independent word but continues to exist as prefix, and some cases are used as postpositions indicating location.
    etu -> edempi (located in front of sometihng else, nearer)
    lähi- -> lähempi (closer)
    perä (aft part of something) -> perempi (located further aback)
    sisä -> sisempi (inner)
    taka -> taempi (located behind something else)
    ulko- -> ulompi (outer)

Usage notes[edit]

  • Bisyllabic adjectives ending in -a or change the final vowel to e before the comparative suffix but trisyllabic adjectives do not. The stem is the same as in the genitive singular.

Declension[edit]

Back vowel harmony declension (includes vowels a, o, u)

Inflection of -mpi (Kotus type 16/vanhempi, mp-mm gradation)
nominative -mpi -mmat
genitive -mman -mpien
partitive -mpaa -mpia
illative -mpaan -mpiin
singular plural
nominative -mpi -mmat
accusative nom.? -mpi -mmat
gen. -mman
genitive -mman -mpien
-mpainrare
partitive -mpaa -mpia
inessive -mmassa -mmissa
elative -mmasta -mmista
illative -mpaan -mpiin
adessive -mmalla -mmilla
ablative -mmalta -mmilta
allative -mmalleˣ -mmilleˣ
essive -mpana -mpina
translative -mmaksi -mmiksi
instructive -mmin
abessive -mmatta -mmitta
comitative -mpine

Front vowel harmony declension (includes vowels ä, ö, y)

Inflection of -mpi (Kotus type 16/vanhempi, mp-mm gradation)
nominative -mpi -mmät
genitive -mmän -mpien
partitive -mpää -mpiä
illative -mpään -mpiin
singular plural
nominative -mpi -mmät
accusative nom.? -mpi -mmät
gen. -mmän
genitive -mmän -mpien
-mpäinrare
partitive -mpää -mpiä
inessive -mmässä -mmissä
elative -mmästä -mmistä
illative -mpään -mpiin
adessive -mmällä -mmillä
ablative -mmältä -mmiltä
allative -mmälleˣ -mmilleˣ
essive -mpänä -mpinä
translative -mmäksi -mmiksi
instructive -mmin
abessive -mmättä -mmittä
comitative -mpine

See also[edit]