-na

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Albanian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Related to unë (I) and (probably) further to ne (we).

The Gheg personal suffix -na (I, me) indicates:

In Tosk (and Standard Albanian)

See bëj (I do, make) for more.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-na

  1. (personal suffix) used to form the 1st person singular present tense of verbs in mediopassive voice (indicative mood).
  2. Forms verbs in mediopassive voice from active voice
    active bâj (I do, make) + h (mediopassive marker) + -namediopassive bâh[na] ([I] become, turn into)
    (Tosk and Standard Albanian variant: bëjbëh[em])
    active aorist bôna (I did, made)mediopassive aorist u + bôna (I became, turned into)
    (Tosk/Standard: bërau bëra)
    active zbeh (I make white(r), pale(r)) + -namediopassive zbeh[na] ([I]'m getting pale(r), white(r))
    (Tosk/Standard: zbehzbeh[em])
    active aorist zbeva (I made pale(r))mediopassive aorist u + zbeva (I got pale(r))
  3. Forms mediopassive verbs from adjectives
    adjective shkurt (short) + o- (vowel stem) + h (mediopassive marker) + -namediopassive verb shkurtoh[na] ([I] become short(er))
    (Tosk/Standard: shkurtojshkurtoh[em])
    active aorist shkurtova (I shortned)mediopassive aorist u + shurtova (I became shorter)
    (Tosk/Standard: shkurtovau + shkurtova)

Related terms[edit]


Aymara[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-na

  1. possessive marker

Curripaco[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-na

  1. third person plural patient marker

References[edit]

  • Swintha Danielsen, Tania Granadillo, Agreement in two Arawak languages, in The Typology of Semantic Alignment (edited by Mark Donohue, Søren Wichmann) (2008, →ISBN), page 398

Czech[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-na f

  1. from nouns forms nouns referring to places
    prodej + ‎-na → ‎prodejna

Derived terms[edit]


Further reading[edit]


Estonian[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-na

  1. Forms the essive case.

Usage notes[edit]

  • The suffix is appended to the genitive stem or an appropriate plural stem.

Finnish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-na, from the Proto-Uralic locative case ending *-na.

Suffix[edit]

-na (front vowel harmony variant -nä)

  1. Forms the essive case.
    kaunis beautiful (word includes back vowel, a) -> + -na = kauniina
    eräänä kauniina aamuna
    on a beautiful morning
    Ennen pidit minua kauniina.
    In the past you thought I was beautiful. (literally: In the past you held me as beautiful.)
Usage notes[edit]
  • The suffix is appended to the same stem as the illative suffixes, and also the partitive singular often uses the same stem.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-na.

Suffix[edit]

-na (front vowel harmony variant -nä)

  1. Forms action nouns from certain verbs, mainly related to sound, whose first infinitive ends in -sta.
    kutina (itching), from kutista (to itch)

Derived terms[edit]


Anagrams[edit]


Hadza[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-na

  1. a locative suffix
    hama (3rd person masculine singular proximal pronoun)hamana (here)
    bee (3rd person feminine plural given pronoun)beena (there)
    himiggê (3rd person masculine singular invisible pronoun)himiggêna (in/behind there)

Hawaiian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Polynesian *-ŋa.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-na

  1. Common nominalizing suffix, sometimes with shortening of a long vowel in the base.
    ʻaiʻaina
    piʻipiʻina

Derived terms[edit]



Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-na

  1. (personal suffix) Used to form the third-person singular present tense of verbs (conditional mood, indefinite conjugation).
    olvas (to read)olvasna (he/she would read)

Usage notes[edit]

  • (personal suffix) Harmonic variants:
    -na is added to most back vowel verbs
    vár (to wait)várna (he/she would wait)
    -ne is added to most front vowel verbs
    kér (to ask)kérne (he/she would ask)
    -ana is added to back vowel verbs ending in two consonants or in a long vowel + t (exceptions áll, száll, varr, forr, lát)
    mond (to say something)mondana (he/she would say something)
    tanít (to teach)tanítana (he/she would teach)
    -ene is added to front vowel verbs ending in two consonants or in a long vowel + t
    fest (to paint)festene (he/she would paint)
    segít (to help)segítene (he/she would help)

See also[edit]


Irish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-na

  1. Alternative form of -ne (used after velarized consonants and back vowels)

Further reading[edit]


Kambera[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

-na

  1. third person singular genitive enclitic

See also[edit]


Laboya[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

-na

  1. third person singular subject enclitic
  2. third person singular possessive enclitic

See also[edit]


Maori[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-na

  1. Used in contractions with particles of possession of third person pronouns.

See also[edit]


Old Norse[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-inōną.

Suffix[edit]

-na

  1. Used to form inchoative verbs from adjectives
Conjugation[edit]
Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-anǫ̂ and *-ōnǫ̂, genitive plural endings of weak neuter and feminine nouns.

Suffix[edit]

-na

  1. Used to form the genitive plural of some weak feminine and neuter nouns
    hjartahjartna
    sagasagna

Etymology 3[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-na

  1. inflection of -inn (adjective suffix):
    1. positive degree strong feminine accusative singular
    2. positive degree strong masculine accusative plural
    3. positive degree weak masculine oblique singular
    4. positive degree weak feminine nominative singular
    5. positive degree weak neuter singular
  2. inflection of -inn (participle suffix):
    1. strong feminine accusative singular
    2. strong masculine accusative plural
    3. weak masculine oblique singular
    4. weak feminine nominative singular
    5. weak neuter singular
  3. inflection of -inn (definite article suffix):
    1. feminine accusative singular
    2. masculine accusative plural

Quechua[edit]

Not to be confused with -ña

Suffix[edit]

-na

  1. Nominalizer, future perfect participle.
    llamk'ay (to work)llamk'ana (tool, work to be done)
    mikhuy (to eat)mikhuna (food, meal)

See also[edit]


Scots[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-na

  1. not
    didna ("did not")
    canna ("can not")
    daurna ("dare not")
    michtna ("might not")

Swedish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse na, from Proto-Germanic *-naną.

Suffix[edit]

-na

  1. Marker of definiteness on nouns in the plural (except for those of the fourth and fifth declensions).
    stolar (from stol (chair)); stolarna, chairs; the chairs
  2. -en; Used with some adjectives to form inchoative verbs
    trött; tröttna, tired; become tired.

Usage notes[edit]

Inchoative verb
The suffix -na may be analysed as two morphemes (-n (inchoative verb stem) + -a (infinitive)). Traditionally the a's near the ends of the Swedish first declension verb forms have been regarded as part of the suffixes, but nowadays it is more common to see it described as part of the stems of these verbs, since all endings not beginning with an a are extinct or considered heavily archaic.

Derived terms[edit]


Anagrams[edit]


Taos[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-na

  1. Singular number inflection. (See also: -ną, -nemą, -ne.)

Volapük[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-na

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.