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See also: s'


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Alternative forms[edit]

  • -es' (after sibiliant consonants)




  1. Plural possessive marker (applied to words which form the plural by adding -s), indicating than an object belongs to the plural noun phrase bearing the marker. (See also es'.)
    Chris’s heart leapt when she saw the expressions on her teachers’ faces. (the teacher + s’)
    their faces’ expressions (face + s’)

Usage notes[edit]

  • Use of the plural possessive marker -s’ is to be distinguished from use of the possessive marker -' on nouns that terminate in -s (see -' for more) and from the possessive marker -'s (which also see). Whether they are pronounced identically or differently varies between idiolects. The BBC prescribes the following distinction:[1] (a) Dickens novel and Dickens’ novel /dɪkɪnz nɒvəl/, Dickens’s novel /dɪkɪnzɪz nɒvəl/; princess’s and princesses’ /pɹɪn.sɛs.ɪz/; i.e. adding bare or -(e)s’ does not change pronunciation. Some speakers, however, may pronounce one or both as /ɪz/, i.e. Dickens’ as /ˈdɪkɪnzɪz/, princesses’ as /pɹɪn.sɛs.ɪs.ɪz/, and e.g. boys’ as /bɔɪzɪz/ (instead of the more common /bɔɪz/).

See also[edit]