-st

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English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English -st; see -est.

Suffix[edit]

-st

  1. (archaic) Verb suffix for the second-person singular; Alternative form of -est
    • Macbeth
      Thou com'st to use thy tongue.

Etymology 2[edit]

From the written form of first; see further etymology there.

Suffix[edit]

-st

  1. Marks ordinals written in digits when the final term of the spelled number is "first"
    the 21st century
Coordinate terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

-s +‎ -t of excrescent suffixes, with -s sometimes genitive.

Suffix[edit]

-st

  1. Excrescent suffix (adding sound but largely not changing the meaning).
    among + ‎-st → ‎amongst
    mid + ‎-st → ‎midst
    while + ‎-st → ‎whilst
Usage notes[edit]

When there is a shorter synonymous word (as in amongst/among), the form with -st is generally considered more formal, old-fashioned or affected in American English; whereas both are usually interchangeable in British English.

However, against is distinct in meaning from again, and midst is used in some contexts distinctly from mid.

Derived terms[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Dutch[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

The suffix -st consists of two parts: a suffix -t (Proto-Indo-European *-ti) and an inserted -s-. The -s- is the result of a wrong segmentation of stem and suffix of a noun in cases where the stem of the noun ended with -s-. For example: a word like Dutch vorst (frost) could be interpreted as vors+t or as vor+st. This suffix existed already in Gothic (𐌰𐌽𐍃𐍄𐍃 (ansts), from 𐌿𐌽𐌽𐌰𐌽 (unnan)).[1]

Suffix[edit]

-st f (plural -sten)

  1. appended to the stem of a verb, this suffix yields a verbal noun; it is similar in function to the Dutch suffix -ing
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix[edit]

-st

  1. appended to an adjective this suffix forms the superlative
    vreemd (strange)vreemdst (strangest)

References[edit]

  1. ^ A. van Loey, "Schönfeld's Historische Grammatica van het Nederlands", Zutphen, 8. druk, 1970, →ISBN; § 167

German[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix[edit]

-st

  1. verb suffix for the second-person singular
    Du hast eine Katze. (You have a cat.)

Etymology 2[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix[edit]

-st

  1. forming superlatives of adjectives and adverb

Derived terms[edit]



Hungarian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From -s (adjective-forming suffix) +‎ -t (locative suffix) in the Old Hungarian period. The adverbial sense of the locative suffix -t can be shown only in this -st morpheme.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-st

  1. (adverb-forming suffix) Forms an adverb of manner.

Usage notes[edit]

It is no longer productive and can be found only in a few adverbs: bízvást, egyenest, fogvást, folyvást, folyton-folyvást, homlokegyenest, képest, mármost, mihelyst, most, oldalvást, óvást, örömest, rögvest, szemlátomást, üstöllést, valamelyest, vegyest.[2]

Derived terms[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ Zaicz, Gábor. Etimológiai szótár: Magyar szavak és toldalékok eredete (’Dictionary of Etymology: The origin of Hungarian words and affixes’). Budapest: Tinta Könyvkiadó, 2006, →ISBN
  2. ^ Papp, Ferenc (ed.). A magyar nyelv szóvégmutató szótára (’Reverse-Alphabetized Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1994, p. 495.

Icelandic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Old Norse -sk, reduced form of the reflexive pronoun sik (whence Icelandic sig).

Suffix[edit]

-st

  1. turns verbs into middle voice verbs

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]


Middle Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Dutch -ist, -ost, from Proto-Germanic *-istaz, *-ōstaz.

Suffix[edit]

-st

  1. Forms the superlative of adjectives; -est

Derived terms[edit]

See Category:Middle Dutch adjective superlative forms.

Related terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Dutch: -st