-st

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English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English -st; see -est.

Suffix[edit]

-st

  1. (archaic) Verb suffix for the second-person singular; Alternative form of -est

Etymology 2[edit]

From the written form of first; see further etymology there.

Suffix[edit]

-st

  1. Marks ordinals written in digits when the final term of the spelled number is "first"
    the 21st century
Coordinate terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

-s +‎ -t of excrescent suffixes, with -s sometimes genitive.

Suffix[edit]

-st

  1. Excrescent suffix (adding sound but largely not changing the meaning).
    among + ‎-st → ‎amongst
    mid + ‎-st → ‎midst
    while + ‎-st → ‎whilst
Usage notes[edit]

When there is a shorter synonymous word (as in amongst/among), the form with -st is generally considered more formal, old-fashioned or affected in American English; whereas both are usually interchangeable in British English.

However, against is distinct in meaning from again, and midst is used in some contexts distinctly from mid.

Derived terms[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Dutch[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

The suffix -st consists of two parts: a suffix -t (Proto-Indo-European *-ti) and an inserted -s-. The -s- is the result of a wrong segmentation of stem and suffix of a noun in cases where the stem of the noun ended with -s-. For example: a word like Dutch vorst (frost) could be interpreted as vors+t or as vor+st. This suffix existed already in Gothic (𐌰𐌽𐍃𐍄𐍃 (ansts), from 𐌿𐌽𐌽𐌰𐌽 (unnan)).[1]

Suffix[edit]

-st f (plural -sten)

  1. appended to the stem of a verb, this suffix yields a verbal noun; it is similar in function to the Dutch suffix -ing
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix[edit]

-st

  1. appended to an adjective this suffix forms the superlative
    vreemd (strange)vreemdst (strangest)

References[edit]

  1. ^ A. van Loey, "Schönfeld's Historische Grammatica van het Nederlands", Zutphen, 8. druk, 1970, →ISBN; § 167

Faroese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Old Norse -sk, reduced form of the reflexive pronoun sik (whence Faroese seg).

Suffix[edit]

-st

  1. turns verbs into middle voice verbs

Derived terms[edit]


German[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle High German -est, from older -es through rebracketing in inverted forms like sizzes du → sizzestu → sizzest du (do you sit). Further from a merger of various Old High German conjugation suffixes, from Proto-Germanic, from Proto-Indo-European.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /st/ (standard)
  • IPA(key): /t/ (alternatively after -sch-)
  • IPA(key): /s/ (central-western Germany, chiefly informal)
  • IPA(key): /ʃ/ (south-western Germany and Switzerland, chiefly informal)

Suffix[edit]

-st

  1. Verb suffix for the second-person singular.
    lachen (to laugh) + ‎-st → ‎du lachst (you laugh, thou laughest)
    spielen (to play) + ‎-st → ‎du spielst (you play, thou playest)
Usage notes[edit]
  • In the present tense, the suffix becomes -t after s, ß, x, z: du schießt. After sch the spelling -t is standard only in Austria and South Tyrol, but the according pronunciation is common in most regions: du wäschst or wäscht.
  • The suffix becomes -est after d, t: du wartest. However, strong verbs with a vowel change have -st: du rätst. In obsolete usage the form -est was employed more freely also after other sounds.
  • In the strong past tense, -est is used after sibilants: du schossest. However, when the preceding vowel is long the form -t is possible alternatively: du aßest or aßt. After d, t the forms -est and -st are used in free variation: du rittest or rittst.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle High German -est, from a merger of Old High German -ist and -ōst, from Proto-Germanic *-istaz and *-ōstaz.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-st

  1. Forms superlatives of adjectives and adverbs, sometimes triggering umlaut.
    klein (small) + ‎-st → ‎der kleinste (the smallest)
    lang (long) + ‎-st → ‎der längste (the longest)
    herzlich (cordially) + ‎-st → ‎am herzlichsten (most cordially)
    schleunig (speedily) + ‎-st → ‎schleunigst (straight away)
Usage notes[edit]
  • Attributive superlatives are declined like other adjectives. Predicative and adverbial superlatives generally take the particle am before them and are accordingly declined in the neuter dative singular. Some adjectives/adverbs also have basic forms in -st, but these are generally lexicalised.
  • The suffix becomes -est after sibilants s, sch, ß, x, z and after d, t when the adjective has final stress: der kürzeste, weiteste (though der kürzte, weitste may be heard colloquially). When the last vowel is /ə/ or /ɪ/ the short form is used: der geeignetste, sympathischste. After other unstressed vowels both ways are possible: der elendeste or elendste.
  • The forms -st and -est are also both possible after stressed final vowels and after consonant clusters (except those involving -r-). Thus: der neueste or neuste, der schlankeste or schlankste. Here the formal language prefers the long forms while the vernacular prefer the short ones.
Derived terms[edit]

Hungarian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From -s (adjective-forming suffix) +‎ -t (locative suffix) in the Old Hungarian period. The adverbial sense of the locative suffix -t can be shown only in this -st morpheme.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-st

  1. (adverb-forming suffix) Forms an adverb of manner.

Usage notes[edit]

It is no longer productive and can be found only in a few adverbs: bízvást, egyenest, fogvást, folyvást, folyton-folyvást, homlokegyenest, képest, mármost, mihelyst, most, nézvést, oldalvást, óvást, örömest, rögvest, szemlátomást, üstöllést, valamelyest, vegyest.[2]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ -st in Zaicz, Gábor (ed.). Etimológiai szótár: Magyar szavak és toldalékok eredete (’Dictionary of Etymology: The origin of Hungarian words and affixes’). Budapest: Tinta Könyvkiadó, 2006, →ISBN.  (See also its 2nd edition.)
  2. ^ Papp, Ferenc (ed.). A magyar nyelv szóvégmutató szótára (’Reverse-Alphabetized Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1994, p. 495.

Icelandic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse -sk, reduced form of the reflexive pronoun sik (whence Icelandic sig).

Suffix[edit]

-st

  1. turns verbs into middle voice verbs

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]


Ingrian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-stik, reanalysed as identical to the elative marker. Cognates include Finnish -sti and Estonian -sti.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-st

  1. Used to form adverbs of manner from adjectives; -ly
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-sta. Cognates include Finnish -sta and Estonian -st.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-st

  1. Used to form the elative case; out of
Usage notes[edit]

Luxembourgish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle High German -est, from Old High German -ist, -ōst, from Proto-Germanic *-istaz, *-ōstaz.

The expected form would be -scht as still in bescht (best) and meescht (most). The form -st is native in the northern third of Luxembourg and spread southwards, probably in part because the suffix is used in positions where /ʃ/ otherwise does not occur, and in part under the reinforcing influence of standard German.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-st

  1. Forms the superlative of adjectives; -est

Middle Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Dutch -ist, -ost, from Proto-Germanic *-istaz, *-ōstaz.

Suffix[edit]

-st

  1. Forms the superlative of adjectives; -est

Derived terms[edit]

See Category:Middle Dutch adjective superlative forms.

Related terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Dutch: -st