Appendix:1000 Japanese basic words

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Nouns[edit]

People[edit]

Occupations[edit]

Body[edit]

Family[edit]

Life[edit]

Animals[edit]

Plants[edit]

Crops[edit]

Food[edit]

Drink[edit]

Seasoning[edit]

Time[edit]

Week Days[edit]

Weather[edit]

Directions and positions[edit]

Materials[edit]

Weights and measures[edit]

Society[edit]

Human made objects[edit]

Home[edit]

Tools[edit]

Stationery[edit]

Clothes[edit]

Transport[edit]

Language[edit]

Media[edit]

Colors[edit]

Others[edit]

Numbers[edit]

Abstract nouns[edit]

Adjectives[edit]

Forms[edit]

Feelings[edit]

Verbs[edit]

Existence[edit]

in intransitive sense

Movement[edit]

Actions[edit]

Changes of state[edit]

Senses[edit]

Speech[edit]

Work[edit]

Emotions[edit]

Activities[edit]

tr transitive sense
in intransitive sense
conjugates as a u-verb

Adverbs[edit]

Pre-noun adjectival[edit]

Interjections[edit]

Conjunctions[edit]

Terminations of verbs[edit]

  • よう – volitional ending [う for u-verbs, よう for ru-verbs]: "Let's…" or "I will" (u, )
  • せるさせる – causative ending [せる for u-verbs, させる for ru-verbs]: to make [someone do something], to allow (seru, saseru)
  • れるられる – passive verb ending [れる for u-verbs, られる for ru-verbs]: to be <verbed> [e.g., 食べられる, "to be eaten"] (reru, rareru)
  • そうだ – indicates that it seems the verb occurs [e.g., "It seems he ate"] (sōda)
  • – informal past-tense (ta)
  • たい – indicates desire to perform verb (tai)
  • だろう – indicates that it seems the verb occurs; also used to ask whether the verb occurs (darō)
  • ない, – informal negative (nai, n) [ん is a slurred version and sounds a little masculine]
  • – archaic informal negative ["he hath", "thou didst", etc.] (nu)
  • ます – formal non-past ending (masu)

Particles[edit]

Case[edit]

  • – subject marker, but (ga)
  • – at, by (de)
  • – and, with (to)
  • – indirect object marker (ni)
  • – possession marker, of (no)
  • – to (e) [Note: へ is normally read he, but when used as this particle its reading changes to e]
  • まで – to (made)
  • から – from (kara)
  • より – than (yori)
  • – direct object marker (o)

Conjunctive[edit]

  • および及び – and; as well as (oyobi)
  • – whether (ka)
  • かも – might be, possible that (kamo)
  • そして – and then (soshite)
  • それとも – or (soretomo)
  • だの – things like <list of things>, including, such things as (dano)
  • つつ – ongoing occurrence (tsutsu) [similar to ながら but has different tone, and both actions have equal weight]
  • te form of verb or adjective [see explanation]
  • – when, if, that (to)
  • ながら – while, though, both (nagara)
  • ならびに – as well as (narabini)
  • なり – whether or not (nari)
  • – to <somewhere>, by <someone> (ni)
  • – possession (no)
  • ので – so (node)
  • また – also, again (mata)
  • または又は – or alternatively (matawa)
  • – also, too (mo)
  • – and (ya)

Final[edit]

  • – emphasis and question marker, equivalent to "right?" (ne)
  • – question marker (ka)
  • – the copula particle used after quasi-adjectives (na)
  • かしら – I wonder (kashira)
  • – -ness (sa)
  • っけ – particle indicating that the speaker is trying to recall some information ["What class is next -kke?"] (-kke)

Adverbial[edit]

  • こそ – emphasis (koso)
  • さえ – even (sae)
  • しか – only (shika)
  • すら – even (sura)
  • くらいぐらい – approximately, about (kurai)
  • だけ – only, as much as (dake)
  • だって – however (datte)
  • ったら – casual topic marker (ttara) [colloquial form of to ittara (if you refer to ~; as for ~]
  • って – said that (tte)
  • でも – also, or (demo)
  • どころ – (particle used to indicate that what precedes it is an extreme example and strongly negates it) (dokoro)
  • など – for example (nado)
  • なら – if [for verbs]; subject marker [for nouns] (nara)
  • なんか – casual undervalue, dislike, lack (nanka)
  • なんて – casual undervalue, dislike, lack (nante)
  • – topic marker (wa) [although ha is the hiragana used, wa is the pronunciation)
  • ばかりばっかり – just, full of, only (bakari)
  • まで – until (made)
  • – too, also (mo)