Appendix:Amoy Min Nan Swadesh list

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See Appendix:Swadesh list

Swadesh list of 207 words in English and Amoy Min Nan, including Pe̍h-ōe-jī and IPA transcription. The Amoy (Xiamen) dialect is referred to as E-mûiⁿ-oe Taiwanese in Taiwan, and Hokkien in rest of the world. The spellings and pronunciations in this list are based on Xiamen speech. All words in Xiamen speech will either match Quanzhou or Zhangzhou spelling and pronunciation. For purposes of clarity, non-Xiamen spellings and pronuciations are not included on this page. However, they can be found at Appendix:Sino-Tibetan Swadesh lists.

Presentation[edit]

For further information, read the article: Swadesh list

The Swadesh word list, developed by the linguist Morris Swadesh, is used as a tool to study the evolution of languages. It contains a set of basic words which can be found in every language. Various versions have been created, in particular:

  • a complete 207 words version, in which some of the words are not found in every environment (it contains for instance snake and snow)
  • a reduced 100 words version.

This word list should not be considered as an elementary lexicon to communicate with speakers of a given language; for such a purpose, the numerous existing Wikivoyage lexicons are more useful. Its only objective is to give a rough idea of the language, by showing its lexical and, when possible, phonetics basis.

English word POS Pe̍h-ōe-jī IPA notes Traditional Chinese Simplified Chinese
1 I personal pronoun góa gua˥˧
2 you(singular) personal pronoun li˥˧
3 he personal pronoun i i˥˥
4 we personal pronoun gún gun˥˧ we (not including you)
lán lan˥˧ we (including you)
5 you(plural) personal pronoun lín lɪn˥˧
6 they personal pronoun in in˥˥ 亻因 亻因
7 this demonstrative pronoun che tse˥˥
chit-ê tɕɪt˥˥e˧˥ 即個 即个
8 that demonstrative pronoun he he˥˥
hit-ê hɪt˥˥e˧˥ 彼個 彼个
9 here demonstrative pronoun chia tɕia˥˥ or or
10 there demonstrative pronoun hia hia˥˥ or or
11 who interrogative siáⁿ-lâng ɕiã˥˥laŋ˧˥ 啥人 啥人
siáng ɕiaŋ˥˧ contraction of siáⁿ-lâng
12 what interrogative siáⁿ-mih ɕiã˥˥miʔ˩˩ 啥物 啥物
sīm-mi̍h ɕɪm˨˩miʔ˥˥ 甚麼 什么
tó-chi̍t-ê to˥˥tɕɪt˩˩e˧˥ which 佗一個 or 叨一個 佗一个 or 叨一个
13 where interrogative tó-ūi to˥˥ui˧˧ 佗位 or 叨位 佗位 or 叨位
14 when interrogative sīm-mi̍h-sî-chūn ɕɪm˨˩miʔ˥˥ɕi˨˩tsun˧˧ what time 甚麼時陣 什么时阵
tang-sî taŋ˧˧ɕi˧˥ 當時 当时
15 how interrogative jû-hô ʣu˨˩ho˧˥ formal 如何 如何
án-chóaⁿ an˥˥tsuã˥˧ informal 按怎 按怎
chóaⁿ-iūⁿ tsuã˥˥iũ˧˧ in what way 怎樣 怎样
16 not put put˩˩ literary
ṃ˧˧ is not/does not
be˧˧ is not able to or 勿會 or 勿会
mài mai˥˧ do not (imperative) or or 勿愛 or or 勿爱
bo˧˥ does not have/did not
17 all quantifier chôan-pō· tsuan˨˩pɔ˧˧ all of it 全部 全部
kui kui˥˥ ex. all day or or
só·-ū sɔ˥˥u˧˧ ex. all cars 所有 所有
lóng lɔŋ˥˧ ex. they all see it.
lóng-chóng lɔŋ˥˥tsɔŋ˥˧ ex. how many in all? 攏總 拢总
18 many quantifier chōe tsue˧˧ or 多支 or 多支
19 some quantifier chi̍t-kóa tɕɪt˩˩kua˥˧ 一寡 一寡
kúi-nā-ê kui˥˥na˨˩e˧˥ 幾若個 几若个
20 few quantifier chió tɕio˥˧
21 other quantifier kî-thaⁿ ki˨˩tʰã˥˥ 其他 其他
pa̍t-ê pat˩˩e˧˥ 別的 别的
22 one cardinal number it ɪt˩˩ more than 10
chi̍t tɕɪt˥˥ less than 10
23 two cardinal number ʑi˧˧
nn̄g nŋ˧˧
24 three cardinal number saⁿ sã˥˥
25 four cardinal number ɕi˨˩
26 five cardinal number ngō ŋo˧˧
27 big adjective tōa tua˧˧
28 long adjective tn̂g tŋ˧˥
29 wide adjective khoan kʰuan˥˥
30 thick adjective kāu kau˧˧
31 heavy adjective tāng taŋ˧˧
32 small adjective sòe sue˨˩
33 short adjective te˥˧
34 narrow adjective o̍eh ueʔ˥˥
35 thin adjective po̍h poʔ˥˥
36 woman noun lú-jîn lu˥˥ʑɪn˧˥ formal 女人 女人
cha-bó· tsa˧˧bɔ˥˧ informal 查某 查某
37 man(adult male) noun lâm-jîn lam˨˩ʑɪn˧˥ formal 男人 男人
cha-po· tsa˧˧pɔ˥˥ informal 查埔 查埔
38 man(human being) noun lâng laŋ˧˥ or or
39 child(a youth) noun gín-á gɪn˥˥a˥˧ informal 囡仔 or 囝仔 囡仔 or 囝仔
jî-tông ʑi˨˩tɔŋ˧˥ formal 兒童 儿童
40 wife noun bó· bɔ˥˧
41 husband noun ang aŋ˥˥
42 mother noun bú-chhin bu˥˥tɕʰɪn˥˥ literary 母親 母亲
lāu-bú lau˨˩bu˥˧ 老母 老母
ma-ma ma˧˧ma 媽媽 妈妈
a-bú a˧˧bu˥˧ 阿母 阿母
43 father noun hū-chhin hu˨˩tɕʰɪn˥˥ literary 父親 父亲
lāu-pē lau˨˩pe˧˧ 老爸 老爸
pa-pa pa˧˧pa 爸爸 爸爸
a-pa a˧˧pa˥˥ 阿爸 阿爸
44 animal noun tōng-bu̍t tɔŋ˨˩but˥˥ 動物 动物
45 fish noun hi˧˥
46 bird noun chiáu tɕiau˥˧
chiáu-á tɕiau˥˥a˥˧ 鳥仔 鸟仔
47 dog noun káu kau˥˧
káu-á kau˥˥a˥˧ 狗仔 狗仔
48 louse noun sat sat˩˩
sat-bú sat˥˥bu˥˧ 虱母 虱母
49 snake noun chôa tsua˧˥
50 worm noun thâng tʰaŋ˧˥
tō·-ún tɔ˨˩un˥˧ earthworm 土蚓 土蚓
tō·-kún tɔ˨˩kun˥˧ earthworm 土蚓 土蚓
51 tree noun chhiū tɕʰiu˧˧
chhiū-á tɕʰiu˨˩a˥˧ 樹仔 树仔
52 forest noun sim-lîm ɕɪm˧˧lɪm˧˥ 森林 森林
chhiū-nâ tɕʰiu˨˩na˧˥ 樹林 树林
53 stick noun chhiū-ki tɕʰiu˨˩ki˥˥ tree branch 樹枝 树枝
ki-á ki˧˧a˥˧ informal 枝仔 枝仔
54 fruit noun chúi-kó tsui˥˥ko˥˧ 水果 水果
kóe-chí kue˥˥tɕi˥˧ 果子 果子
55 seed noun chéng-chí tɕiŋ˥˥tɕi˥˧ 種子 种子
56 leaf noun hio̍h hioʔ˥˥
hio̍h-á hioʔ˨˩a˥˧ 葉仔 叶仔
57 root noun kun kun˥˥
58 bark noun chhiū-phê tɕʰiu˨˩pʰe˧˥ 樹皮 树皮
59 flower noun hoe hue˥˥
60 grass noun chháu tsʰau˥˧
61 rope noun soh soʔ˩˩
soh-á soʔ˥˧a˥˧ 索仔 索仔
62 skin noun phê pʰe˧˥
phê-hu pʰe˨˩hu˥˥ 皮膚 皮肤
63 meat noun bah baʔ˩˩
64 blood noun huih huiʔ˩˩
hiat-e̍k hɪɛt˥˥ɪk˥˥ 血液 血液
65 bone noun kut kut˩˩
kut-thâu kut˥˥tʰau˧˥ 骨頭 骨头
66 fat noun chi-hông tɕi˧˧hɔŋ˧˥ academic 脂肪 脂肪
jī-nn̂g ʑi˨˩nŋ˧˥ colloquial 膩瓤 腻瓤
67 egg noun nn̄g nŋ˧˧
koe-nn̄g kue˧˧nŋ˧˧ chicken egg 雞卵 鸡卵
68 horn noun kak kak˩˩
69 tail noun be˥˧
bé-liu be˥˥liu˥˥ 尾溜 尾溜
70 feather noun chiáu-mn̂g tɕiau˥˥mŋ˧˥ 鳥毛 鸟毛
71 hair noun thâu-mn̂g tʰau˨˩mŋ˧˥ 頭毛 头毛
72 head noun thâu tʰau˧˥ affix
thâu-khak tʰau˨˩kʰak˩˩ 頭殼 头壳
73 ear noun hīⁿ hĩ˧˧
hīⁿ-á hĩ˨˩a˥˧ 耳仔 耳仔
hīⁿ-khang hĩ˨˩kʰaŋ˥˥ 耳孔 耳孔
74 eye noun ba̍k-chiu bak˩˩tɕiu˥˥ 目睭 目睭
75 nose noun phīⁿ pʰĩ˧˧
phīⁿ-á pʰĩ˨˩a˥˧ 鼻仔 鼻仔
76 mouth noun chhùi tsʰui˨˩
77 tooth noun chhùi-khí tsʰui˥˧kʰi˥˧ 嘴齒 嘴齿
78 tongue noun chi̍h tɕiʔ˥˥
chhùi-chi̍h tsʰui˥˧tɕiʔ˥˥ 嘴舌 嘴舌
79 fingernail noun chéng-kah tɕiŋ˥˥kaʔ˩˩ 指甲 指甲
80 foot noun kha kʰa˥˥ or or
81 leg noun thúi tʰui˥˧
82 knee noun kha-thâu-u kʰa˧˧tʰau˨˩u˥˥ 腳頭窩 脚头窝
83 hand noun chhiú tɕʰiu˥˧
84 wing noun e̍k ɪk˥˥ literary
si̍t ɕɪt˥˥ or or
si̍t-á ɕɪt˩˩a˥˧ 翅仔 or 翼仔 翅仔 or 翼仔
si̍t-kó· ɕɪt˩˩kɔ˥˧ 翅股 or 翼股 翅股 or 翼股
85 belly noun pak-tó· pak˥˥tɔ˥˧ 腹肚 腹肚
86 guts noun tn̂g-á tŋ˨˩a˥˧ 腸仔 肠仔
87 neck noun ām-kún am˨˩kun˥˧ 頷頸 颔颈
88 back noun kha-chiah-phiaⁿ kʰa˧˧tɕiaʔ˥˧pʰiã˥˥ 尻脊骿 尻脊骿
89 breast noun hiong hiɔŋ˥˥ chest (affix)
hiong-pō· hiɔŋ˧˧pɔ˧˧ chest (academic) 胸部 胸部
heng-khám hiŋ˧˧kʰam˥˧ chest (generic) 胸坎 胸坎
leng-pông liŋ˧˧pɔŋ˧˥ female organ 奶房 奶房
90 heart noun sim-chōng ɕɪm˧˧tsɔŋ˧˧ 心臟 心脏
91 liver noun koaⁿ kuã˥˥ affix
koaⁿ-chōng kuã˧˧tsɔŋ˧˧ 肝臟 肝脏
92 drink verb lim lɪm˥˥
93 eat verb chia̍h tɕiaʔ˥˥
94 bite verb ka˧˧
95 suck verb khip kʰɪp˩˩ affix
chi̍p tɕɪp˥˥ sip
suh suʔ˩˩ suck
96 spit verb phùi pʰui˨˩ generic
phùi-nōa pʰui˥˧nua˧˧ lit. spit saliva (informal) 呸瀾 呸澜
phùi-chhùi-nōa pʰui˥˧tsʰui˥˧nua˧˧ lit. spit saliva (informal) 呸嘴瀾 呸嘴澜
phùi-thâm pʰui˥˧tʰam˧˥ lit. spit phlegm (informal) 呸痰 呸痰
97 vomit verb áu au˥˧ informal
thò· tʰɔ˨˩ informal
áu-thò· au˥˥tʰɔ˨˩ formal 嘔吐 呕吐
98 blow verb chhe tsʰe˥˥
pûn pun˧˥
99 breathe verb ho·-khip hɔ˧˧kʰɪp˩˩ academic (respire) 呼吸 呼吸
chhóan-khùi tsʰuan˥˥kʰui˨˩ 喘氣 喘气
100 laugh verb chhiò tɕʰio˨˩
101 see verb khòaⁿ kʰuã˨˩
102 hear verb thiaⁿ tʰiã˥˥
103 know verb chai tsai˥˥
chai-iáⁿ tsai˧˧iã˥˧ 知影 知影
pat pat˩˩ to recognize
104 think verb siūⁿ ɕiũ˧˧
105 smell verb phīⁿ pʰĩ˧˧
106 fear verb kiaⁿ kiã˥˥
107 sleep verb khùn kʰun˨˩
108 live verb o̍ah uaʔ˥˥
109 die verb ɕi˥˧
110 kill verb thâi tʰai˧˥
111 fight verb oan-ke uan˧˧ke˥˥ argue 冤家 冤家
sio-phah ɕio˧˧pʰaʔ˩˩ fists 相拍 相拍
sio-thâi ɕio˧˧tʰai˧˥ war 相刣 相刣
112 hunt verb phah-la̍h pʰaʔ˥˧laʔ˥˥ 拍獵 拍猎
113 hit verb phah pʰaʔ˩˩
114 cut verb koah kuaʔ˩˩ cut in two
chhiat tɕʰiɛt˩˩ slice
ka ka˥˥ scissors
115 split verb phòa-khui pʰua˥˧kʰui˥˥ transitive split open 剖開 or 破開 剖开 or 破开
li̍h-khui liʔ˨˩kʰui˥˥ intransitive split open 裂開 裂开
hun-khui hun˧˧kʰui˥˥ split up 分開 分开
116 stab verb chhì tɕʰi˨˩
chân tsan˧˥
tu̍h tuʔ˥˥
117 scratch verb pe˧˥
118 dig verb ó· ɔ˥˧
óe ue˥˧
iah iaʔ˩˩
liú liu˥˧
ku̍t kut˥˥
119 swim verb siû-chúi ɕiu˨˩tsui˥˧ 泅水 泅水
120 fly verb pe pe˥˥
121 walk verb kiâⁿ kiã˧˥ generic
kiâⁿ-lō· kiã˨˩lɔ˧˧ go on foot (informal) 行路 行路
pō·-hêng pɔ˨˩hiŋ˧˥ go on foot (formal) 步行 步行
pō·-kiâⁿ pɔ˨˩kiã˧˥ go on foot (formal) 步行 步行
pō·-lián pɔ˨˩lɪɛn˥˧ go on foot (formal) 步輦 步辇
122 come verb lâi lai˧˥
123 lie verb to˥˧ horizontal
124 sit verb chē tse˧˧
125 stand verb chām tsam˧˧ affix
khiā kʰia˧˧ or or
126 turn verb oat uat˩˩ change direction
127 fall verb lak-lo̍h lak˥˥lɔʔ˥˥ drop 落落 落落
128 give verb hō· hɔ˧˧ or or or or
129 hold verb the̍h tʰeʔ˥˥
130 squeeze verb lu̍t lut˥˥ U+22BF0 U+22BF0
131 rub verb loán luan˥˧ massage; knead 扌耎 扌耎
132 wash verb sóe sue˥˧
133 wipe verb chhit tɕʰɪt˩˩
134 pull verb khiú kʰiu˥˧
giú giu˥˧
135 push verb sak sak˩˩
136 throw verb tàn tan˥˧
137 tie verb pa̍k pak˥˥
138 sew verb pâng paŋ˧˥
thīⁿ tʰĩ˧˧
139 count verb siàu ɕiau˨˩
140 say verb kóng kɔŋ˥˧
141 sing verb chhiùⁿ tɕʰiũ˨˩
142 play verb sńg sŋ˥˧
chhit-thô tɕʰɪt˥˥tʰo˧˥ intransitive 跮踱 or U+28468 跮踱 or U+28468
143 float verb phû pʰu˧˥
144 flow verb lâu lau˧˥
145 freeze verb kiat-peng kɪɛt˥˥piŋ˥˥ 結冰 结冰
146 swell verb phòng-tōa pʰɔŋ˥˧tua˧˧ 膨大 膨大
147 sun noun thài-iông tʰai˥˧iɔŋ˧˥ scientific 太陽 太阳
ji̍t-thâu ʑɪt˩˩tʰau˧˥ informal 日頭 日头
148 moon noun ge̍h-niû geʔ˨˩niu˧˥ 月亮 月亮
149 star noun chhiⁿ tɕʰĩ˥˥
150 water noun chúi tsui˥˧
151 rain noun hō· hɔ˧˧
152 river noun ho˧˥
153 lake noun ô· ɔ˧˥
154 sea noun hái hai˥˧
155 salt noun iâm ɪɛm˧˥
156 stone noun chio̍h tɕioʔ˥˥ affix
chio̍h-thâu tɕioʔ˨˩tʰau˧˥ 石頭 石头
157 sand noun soa sua˥˥
158 dust noun thô·-hún tʰɔ˨˩hun˥˧ 土粉 土粉
159 earth noun tē-kiû te˨˩kiu˧˥ planet 地球 地球
160 cloud noun hûn hun˧˥
161 fog noun bu˧˧
162 sky noun thiⁿ tʰĩ˥˥
163 wind noun hong hɔŋ˥˥
164 snow noun seh seʔ˩˩
165 ice noun peng piŋ˥˥
166 smoke noun hun hun˥˥
167 fire noun he˥˧
168 ashes noun he he˥˥ ashes or dust
hé-hu he˥˥hu˥˥ 火灰 火灰
169 burn verb hiâⁿ hiã˧˥
170 road noun lō· lɔ˧˧
171 mountain noun soaⁿ suã˥˥
172 red adjective âng aŋ˧˥
173 green adjective le̍k lɪk˥˥ 绿
chhiⁿ tɕʰĩ˥˥
174 yellow adjective n̂g ŋ˧˥
175 white adjective pe̍h peʔ˥˥
176 black adjective ɔ˥˥
177 night noun àm-sî am˥˧ɕi˧˥ 暗時 暗时
178 day noun ji̍t-sî ʑɪt˩˩ɕi˧˥ 日時 日时
179 year noun ni˧˥
180 warm adjective sio-lō ɕio˧˧lo˧˧ 燒烙 烧烙
181 cold adjective kôaⁿ kuã˧˥
182 full adjective bóan buan˥˧ 滿
móa mua˥˧ 滿
tīⁿ tĩ˧˧ or or
183 new adjective sin ɕɪn˥˥
184 old adjective lāu lau˧˧ not young
ku˧˧ not new
185 good adjective ho˥˧
186 bad adjective pháiⁿ pʰaĩ˥˧
187 rotten adjective àu au˨˩
chhàu-nōa tsʰau˥˧nua˧˧ 臭爛 臭烂
188 dirty adjective lah-sap laʔ˥˧sap˩˩ 垃圾 垃圾
189 straight adjective ti̍t tɪt˥˥
190 round adjective îⁿ ĩ˧˥
191 sharp adjective lāi lai˧˧
192 dull adjective tūn tun˧˧
193 smooth adjective kng-ku̍t kŋ˧˧kut˥˥ 光滑 光滑
194 wet adjective sip ɕɪp˩˩ 湿
tâm tam˧˥
195 dry adjective ta ta˥˥
196 correct adjective tio̍h tioʔ˥˥ informal
chèng-khak tɕiŋ˥˧kʰak˩˩ formal 正確 正确
197 near adjective kūn kun˧˧
198 far adjective hn̄g hŋ˧˧
199 right adjective chiàⁿ tɕiã˨˩
200 left adjective to˨˩
201 at preposition ti˧˧ or or
202 in preposition tī...lāi ti˧˧...lai˧˧ 佇...裡 佇...里
203 with conjunction kap kap˩˩
204 and conjunction kap kap˩˩
205 if conjunction nā-sī na˨˩ɕi˧˧ 若是 若是
206 because conjunction in-ūi ɪn˧˧ui˧˧ 因為 因为
207 name noun miâ miã˧˥ affix or generic

See also[edit]


Swadesh lists
Individual languages

Afrikaans – Albanian – Antillean Creole – Arabic (standard) (p), Egyptian Arabic (p), Palestinian Arabic (p), Tunisian Arabic (t) – Armenian (t,p) – Aromanian – Bangala – Bashkir – Basque – Belarusian – Breton – Bulgarian (t) – Burmese (t,p) – Catalan – Chechen – Chinese: Cantonese, Gan (p), Mandarin (t,p), Min Nan (Amoy) (p), Old Chinese (p) – Czech – Danish – Dutch (p) – Egyptian (Middle)  – Esperanto (p) – Estonian – Finnish – Fiji Hindi – Fijian – French (p) – Frisian (West) – Friulian – Georgian (t,p) – German (p) – Greek (modern) (p), Greek (ancient) – Guaraní – Haida – Haitian Creole – Hausa – Hawaiian – Hindi (t) – Hittite – Hmong (White) (p) – Hungarian – Icelandic – Indonesian – Interlingue – Irish (p) – Istro-Romanian – Italian (p) – Japanese (t) – Kashubian – Khmer (p) – Korean (t) – Kurdish – Latin – Latvian – Lingala – Lingua Franca Nova – Lithuanian – Luwian – Macedonian (t) – Malagasy – Malay – Maltese – Megleno-Romanian – Mongolian (t) – Old Portuguese (p) – Ossetian (p) – Polish (p) – Portuguese (p) – Proto-Indo-European – Purepecha – Quechua – Romani – Romanian – Russian (p) – Sanskrit (t) – Scottish Gaelic – Serbo-Croatian – Sinhalese – Slovenian – Spanish (p) – Sranan – Swahili – Swedish – Tagalog – Tajik (t) – Tahitian – Thai (t) – Tocharian B – Tok Pisin – Turkish – Ukrainian – Vietnamese – Walloon – Zulu

Language families and family branches

Afro-Asiatic – Algonquian – Altaic – Araucanian – Austro-Asiatic – Australian – Austronesian – Baltic – Baltic-Finnic – Bantu – Celtic – Dené–Yeniseian – Dravidian – Frisian – Germanic – Hokan – Iberian – Italian – Indo-Iranian – Indo-Iranian (extended) – Mayan – Muskogean – Niger–Congo – Oto-Manguean – Paleosiberian – Penutian – Romance – Sino-Tibetan – Slavic – Siouan – Tai–Kadai – Tibeto-Burman – Tupi–Guarani – Turkic – Uralic – Uto-Aztecan

The list may also include: (t) the transcription in Latin characters; (p) the phonetic transcription