Appendix:Ancient Greek words with English derivatives

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This is a list of Ancient Greek words with their derivatives in English. Each Ancient Greek word is shown in its citation form and in its root form. The citation form is the one commonly shown in dictionaries. The root form is the one that is often used to form compound words. Both citation form and root form are shown in classical transliteration. They are shown in polytonic orthography, an orthography that shows the breathings and fuller range of accents.

Contents

Α[edit]

(h)a
Citation form Root form Meaning English derivative
ἄβυσσος ábussos ἀβυσσ- abyss- bottomless abyss, abyssal
ἀγγεῖον angeîon ἀγγειο- angio- vessel angiosperm, angiocardiography
ἄγγελος ángelos ἀγγελ- angel- messenger angel, evangelist
ἀγωγός agōgós ἀγωγο- agōgo- to drive, lead pedagogue, anagoge, mystagogue
ἅγιος hágios ἁγιο- hagio- holy hagiography
ἄγκυρα ánkura ἀγκυρ- anchor- anchor anchoring, anchorage
ἀγορά agorá ἀγορ- agor- marketplace agoraphobia
ἀγρός agrós ἀγρο- agro- tilled land agrobiology, agronomics, agriculture, agrology
ἀγών agṓn ἀγων- agōn- struggle agonize, antagonistic, agony
ἀήρ aḗr ἀερο- aero-
air-
air aerodynamics, anaerobic
airplane
ἀθλητής athlētḗs ἀθλητ- athlet- contestant in the games athlete, athletics
αἷμα haîma αἱμ- em-
hem-
blood anemia, anemic, hemophilia, hemorrhage
αἰσθητικός aisthētikós αἰσθη- aisthē- to perceive aesthetic, anaesthesia
Ἀκαδημία Akadēmía Ἀκαδημ- akadēm- the school where Plato taught,
the field of Academos
academy, academic
ἄκανθος ákanthos ἀκανθ- akanth- thorn plant acanthous, acanthocephala
ἄκαρι ákari ἀκαρ- akar- a kind of mite acarid, acariasis
ἀκμή akmḗ ἀκ- ac- highest point acme
ἀκόλουθος akólouthos ἀκολουθ- akoluth- follower anacoluthon
ἀκούω akoúō ἀκουστικ- acoustic- to hear acoustics, acoustic nerve
ἄκρον ákron ἀκρο- acro- edge, topmost acronym, acrobat
ἀκτίς aktís ἀκτινo- aktino- ray actinometer, actinozoa, actinium
ἀλέξω aléxō ἀλεξ- alex- to ward off Alexander, alexipharmic
ἀλληγορέω allēgoréō ἀλληγορ- allēgor- to interpret allegorically allegory
ἀλλήλων allḗlōn ἀλληλο- allēlo- of one another allelomorph, parallel
ἄλλος állos ἀλλο- allo- other, different allotropy, allocholesterol
allergy
ἅλς háls ἁλ- hal- salt halogen
ἄλφα álpha ἀλφα- alpha- alpha alphabet
ἀλώπηξ alṓpēx ἀλωπ- alop- fox alopecia
ἀμαύρωσις amaúrōsis ἀμαυρω- amauro- blacken amaurosis fugax
ἀμβλύς amblús ἀμβλυ- ambly- dim amblyopia, amblygonite
ἄμβροτος ámbrotos ἀμβρο- ambro- immortal ambrosia, ambrotype
ἄμβων ámbōn ἀμβω- ambo- raised edge ambo
ἀμμωνιακός ammōniakós ἀμμονια- ammōnia- from Ammōn ammonia, ammoniacal
ἀμνησία amnēsía ἀμνησ- amnēs- oblivion amnesia, amnesty
ἀμνός amnós ἀμν- amn- lamb amnion, amniotic
ἀμοιβή amoibḗ ἀμοιβη- amoeb- change amoeba, amoebic
ἄμορφος ámorphos ἀμορφ- amorph- shapeless amorphous, amorphism
ἄμυλον ámulon ἀμυλ- amyl- starch amyl, amyl alcohol
ἀμφιβάλλω amphibállō ἀμφιβo- amphibo- to throw on either side, to doubt amphibole, amphibology
ἀμφί amphí ἀμφι- amphi- on both sides amphibious, amphioxus
ἀμφίβολος amphíbolos ἀμφιβολ- amphibol- doubtful amphibole, amphibolite
ἀμφιθέατρον amphithéatron ἀμφιθεατ- amphitheat- theater amphitheater, amphitheatric
ἀμφικτυονία amphiktuonía ἀμφικτυονι- amphiktyoni- theater Amphictyony, amphictyonic
ἀμφορεύς amphoreús Ἀμφορ- amphor- bearer amphora
ἀμφότερος amphóteros ἀμφοτερ- amphoter- each of two amphoteric
ἀνά aná ἀνα- ana- again, backward, upward anabolism, anachronism, anaplasia
ἀναθεματίζω anathematízō ἀναθεμα- anathema- ban, curse, or excommunication anathema, anathematize
ἀνάκλισις anáklisis ἀνακλει- anakli- to lean back anaclitism, anaclisis
ἀναλέγω analégō ἀναλε- anale- to gather analects
ἀναληπτικός analēptikós ἀναληπτ- analept- restorative analemma, analeptic
ἀνάλογος análogos ἀναλογ- analog- proportionate analog, analogy
ἀναλύω analúō ἀναλυ- analy- to loosen, to simplify analysis, analytical
ἄναρθρος ánarthros ἀναρθρ- anarthr- not articulated anarthria, anarthrous
ἄναρχος ánarkhos ἀναρχ- anarch- without a ruler anarchy, anarchism
ἀνατολή anatolḗ ἀνατολ- anatol- East Anatolia, Anatolian
ἀνατομία anatomía ἀνατομι- anatomi- dissection anatomy, anatomical, anatomist
ἀνατρέπω anatrépō ἀνατρεπ- anatrep- to reverse anatropous
ἀναχρονισμός anakhronismós ἀναχρονισ- anachronis- wrong time reference anachronistic, anachronism
ἄνεμος ánemos ἀνεμο- anemo- wind anemometer, anemone
ἀνήρ anḗr ἀνδρ- andr- man (male human) androgen, android
ἄνθος ánthos ἀνθο- antho- flower anthology, chrysanthemum
ἄνθρωπος ánthrōpos ἀνθρωπο- anthrōpo- human being anthropology, anthropomorphism
ἄνειμι áneimi ἀνι- ani- to go up anion
ἄνισος ánisos ἀνισο- aniso- unequal, dissimilar anisotropic, anisometric, anisometropia
ἄνοδος ánodos ἀνοδ- anod- way up anode, anodising
ἀντί antí ἀντι- anti- opposite, counter antidote, antimatter, antiaircraft
ἀντιτίθημι antitíthēmi ἀντιθ- antith- to oppose antithesis, antithetical
ἀντίφωνος antíphōnos ἀντιφων- antiphon- sounding in answer antiphon, anthem
ἄντρον ántron ἀντρ- antr- cave, cavity antrum
ἀντωνυμέω antōnuméō ἀντωνυμ- antonym- to have an opposite denomination antonym, antonymous
ἀνώμαλος anṓmalos ἀνωμαλ- anōmal- uneven anomaly
ἀνώνυμος anṓnumos ἀνονυμ- anonym- nameless anonymity, anonymous
ἄξιος áxios ἀξιο- axio- worthy axiology, axiom
ἄξων áxōn ἀξο- axo-
axi-
axis axoneme , axoplasm, axisymmetric
ἀόριστος aóristos ἀοριστ- aorist- indefinite aoristic, aorist
ἀορτή aortḗ ἀορτ- aort- the great artery aortic, aorta
ἀπάτη apátē ἀπατ- apat- deceit apatite, apatosaurus
ἁπλόος haplóos ἁπλο- haplo- single haploid, haplodiploid
ἀπό apó ἀπο- apo- away from apology, apostrophe, apocrypha
ἀπόγειον apógeion ἀπογει- apogei- far from the earth apogee, apogean
ἀποκαλύπτω apokalúptō ἀποκαλυπ- apocalyp- to reveal apocalypse
ἀποκόπτω apokóptō ἀποκoπ- apokop- to cut apocopation, apocopate
ἀπολογία apología ἀπολογ- apolog- apology apology, apologize, apologue
ἀπόμιξις apómixis ἀπομιξ- apomix- without mixing apomixis, apomictic
ἀποπλήσσω apoplḗssō ἀποπλη- apople- to cripple by a stroke apoplexy, apoplectic
ἀποστάτης apostátēs ἀποστατ- apostat- defector apostate, apostasy
ἀποστέλλω apostéllō ἀποστ- apost- to send apostle, apostolic
ἀράχνη arákhnē ἀραχνη arakhnē- spider arachnid
ἄργιλλος árgillos ἀργιλ- argil- clay argil, argillite, argillaceous
Ἄρης Árēs ἀρεο- areo- Mars areocentric, areology
ἀριθμός arithmós ἀριθμ- arithm- number arithmetic, logarithm
ἄριστος áristos ἀριστο- arist- best aristocracy
ἁρμονία harmonía ἁρμονι- armoni- agreement, harmony harmony, enharmonic
ἀρρυθμία arrhuthmía ἁρρυθμ- arrythm- lack of rhythm arrhythmia, arrhythmic
ἀρχαῖος arkhaîos ἀρχαιο- arkhaio- ancient archaeology, archetype
ἀρχή arkhḗ ἀρχη- archi- chief, authority archbishop, anarchy
ἀρχιτέκτων arkhitéktōn ἀρχιτεκτ- architect- chief builder architecture, architect
ἄρωμα árōma ἀρωμα- aroma- spice aroma, aromatic compounds
ἀσθένεια asthéneia ἀσθεν- asthen- weakness asthenia, asthenopia
ἀσφάραγος aspháragos ἀσπαραγ- asparag- asparagus asparagine acid
ἀσπίς aspís ἀσπ- asp- shield asp
ἆσθμα âsthma ἀσθμα- asthma- asthma asthmatic
ἄσυλον ásulon ἀσυλ- asyl- sanctuary asylum
ἀσφυξία asphuxía ἀσφυξ- asphyx- stopping of the pulse asphyxiant
ἀστήρ astḗr ἀστερ- aster- star asteroid, asterisk, disaster
ἄστρον ástron ἀστρο- astro- constellation astronomy, astronaut
Ἄτλας Átlas ἀτλα- atla- name of a Titan atlas, Atlantic
ἄτομος átomos ἀτομ- atom- un + cut atomic, atomizer
αὐθεντικός authentikós αὐθεντικ- authentic- original authentication, authentic
αὐστηρός austērós αὐστηρ- auster- harsh, bitter austerity
αὐταρχία autarkhía αὐταρχ- autarch- absolute governing autarchy, autarchic
αὐτάρκεια autárkeia αὐταρκ- autark- self-sufficiency autarky
αὐξάνω auxánō αὐξ- aux- to increase auxin, auxesis,
αὐτός autós αὐτο- auto- self (reflexive pronoun) autonomy, automatic
ἀφαιρέω aphairéō ἀφαιρ- apher- take away apheresis, hemaphairesis
ἁψίς hapsís ἁψ- aps- arch apse, apsidal

Β[edit]

b

Citation form Root form Meaning English derivative
βάρβαρος bárbaros βαρβαρο- barbaro- stranger, non-Greek barbarian
βαρύς barús βαρυ- bary- heavy baritone, baryon, hyperbaric
βίος bíos βιο- bio- life biology, amphibian, symbiosis
βραχύς brakhús βραχυ- brachy- short brachycephalic

Γ[edit]

g

Citation form Root form Meaning English derivative
γαῖα gaîa γεα- gea- earth geology, Gaia, geometry
γάμος gámos γαμ- gam- marriage polygamy, gamete
γέννησις génnēsis γεν- gen- to give birth, beget genesis, genetic
γιγνώσκω gignṓskō γνω- gnō-
gnē-
to know diagnostic, agnostic
γίγας gígas γιγ- giga- huge, enormous gigabyte, gigantic, giant
γράφω gráphō γραφ- graph- to write graphic, graphite, geography
γυνή gunḗ γυναικ- gunaik- woman polygyny, gynecology, misogynist

Δ[edit]

d

Citation form Root form Meaning English derivative
δῆμος dêmos δημο- dēmo- district, its inhabitants, commoners democracy, demographic
δόξα dóxa δοξ- dox- glory, opinion doxology, orthodox, paradox
δρᾶσις drâsis δρασ- dras- action drastic, anadrastic, drama

Ε[edit]

(h)e

Citation form Root form Meaning English derivative
ἐθνικός ethnikós εθνικ- ethnic people, tribe ethnicity, ethnic
εἰκών eikṓn εἰκων icon icon, picture, painting icon, iconicity, iconoclast
ἕλιξ hélix ἑλικ- helic- spiral helix, helicopter, helicity
ἑπτά heptá ἑπτα- hepta- seven heptarchy, heptagon, heptameter
ἔργον érgon ἐργο- erg- work energetic, energize, energy, ergonomic, ergonomics, George, synergy, synergism, synergistic
εὖ ευ- eu- well eudemonia, eulogy, euphemism, euphoria

Ζ[edit]

z

Citation form Root form Meaning English derivative
ζῷον zôion ζωο- zōo- animal zoology
ζεύγνυμι zeúgnumi ζευγμ- zeugma to yoke zeugma

Η[edit]

(h)ē

Citation form Root form Meaning English derivative
ἡγεμών hēgemṓn ἡγεμον- hēgemon- leader hegemony
ἥλιος hḗlios ἡλιο- hēlio- sun / sun-god helium, heliotropic, heliocentric, perihelion
ἠώς ēṓs ἠο- ēo- dawn Eocene

Θ[edit]

th

Citation form Root form Meaning English derivative
θεός theós θεο-
-θεος
theο-
-theous
-theist, -theism
god words with theo-
words with -theist
theology, atheism
θερμός thermós θερμο-
-θερμος
-θερμια
thermo-
-thermic, -therm
-thermy, -thermia
hot words with thermo-
words with -thermic, -therm, -thermy, -thermia
thermometer, thermoelectric, thermos
isotherm, hypothermia
θησαυρός thēsaurós θησ-   treasure note: from τίθημι (títhēmi, I put)
thesaurus

Ι[edit]

(h)i

Citation form Root form Meaning English derivative
ἰατρός iatrós ἰατρο- iatro- physician iatrogenicpsychiatrist
ἴδιος ídios ἰδι- idi- one’s own, private idiolect, idiom, idiosyncracy
ἱερός hierós ἱερο- hiero- sacred hierarchy, hieroglyph
ἵππος híppos ἱππο- hippo- horse hippodrome, hippopotamus
ἰχθύς ikhthús ἰχθυ- ikhthu- fish ichthyology, ikhthus

Κ[edit]

k, c

Citation form Root form Meaning English derivative
καινός kainós καινο- ceno- new Cenozoic, Holocene
κακός kakós κακο- kako- bad cacophony
κλέπτω kléptō κλεπτ- klept- to steal kleptocracy, kleptomaniac
κλών klṓn κλων- klōn- branch, twig clone, cloning
κοινός koinós κοινο- common coeno-, cen- coenoblast
κόσμος kósmos κοσμ- kosm- order, the universe, jewell cosmography, cosmetic, microcosm
κράτος krátos κρατ- krat- power, rule autocrat, democracy, bureaucracy
κρίνω krínō κρι- cri- to separate; to order; to judge; etc. crisis, criterion, critic, critical, criticism, criticize, critique
κυβερνάω kubernáō ? ? to steer, drive, govern cybernetics, govern, governance, governess, government, governor, gubernatorial
κύβος kúbos cub- cube, die cube, cubic, cubical, cubism, cubist, cuboid
κύκλος kúklos κυκλο- cyclo- circle, ring English words with cyclo-, with -cycle
acyclic, anticyclone, bicycle, bicyclic, bike, cycle, cyclic, (many derivatives), cycloid, cycloidal, cyclone, encyclic, encyclical, encyclopedia, encyclopedic, encyclopedist, epicycle, epicyclic, epicycloid, hypocycloid, monocyclic, motorcycle, polycyclic, recyclable, recyclability, recycle, tricyclic, unicycle

Λ[edit]

l

Citation form Root form Meaning English derivative
λαμβάνω lambánō ? ? to take acatalepsy, acataleptic, astrolabe, catalepsy, cataleptic, dilemma, epilepsy, epileptic, lemma, lemmatization, lemmatize, monosyllable, nympholepsy, nympholept, polysyllable, sublemma, syllabary, syllabic, syllabification, syllabify, syllable, tetralemma, trilemma
λίθος líthos λιθο- litho- stone lithography, neolithic, monolith, megalith
λόγος lógos λογο- logo- thought, word eulogytheology, logic, logorrhea

Μ[edit]

m

Citation form Root form Meaning English derivative
μακρός makrós μακρο- makro- long macron, macrobiotic
μέγας mégas μεγ- mega- big, large mega- (prefix), as in megabyte
μέλας mélas μελαν- melan- pigmented, black, ink melanin, melanoma, Melanesia
μέλος mélos μελο- melo- music, song, melody melody, melodrama
μέταλλον métallon μεταλλ- metal- metal medal, metallic, metalloid
μέτρον métron ? ? measure asymmetry, asymmetrical, diameter, diametral, diametric, diametrical, geometer, geometrical, geometry, isometric, meter, -meter (many items), metric, metrical, metrology, metronome, -metry (many items), parameter, parametric, parametrical, perimeter, semidiameter, symmetry, symmetrical
μικρός mikrós μικρο- mikro- small microphone, microscope
μνῆστις mnêstis μνη- mne- memory amnesia, amnesty, mnemonic
μόνος mónos μονο- mono- alone, solitary, forsaken monotony, monolog, monk
Μοῦσα Moûsa μουσ- mous- a patron goddess of the arts muse, music, museum
μωρός mōrós μωρο- mōro- dull, foolish, stupid, slow moron, oxymoron

Ν[edit]

n

Citation form Root form Meaning English derivative
ναυτικός nautikós ναυτ- naut- sailor, ship nautical, astronaut
νέος néos νεο- neo- new, young neon, neologism

Ξ[edit]

x

Citation form Root form Meaning English derivative
ξανθός xanthós ξανθο- xantho- yellow, golden xanthophyll, xanthochroi
ξένος xénos ξενο- xeno- strange, stranger, guest xenophobia, xenon
ξερός xerós ξερο- xero- dry xerox, xerography
ξίφος xíphos ξιφ- xiph- sword xiphoid, xiphias
ξύλον xúlon ξυλ- xul- wood xylophone, xylem

Ο[edit]

(h)o

Citation form Root form Meaning English derivative
οἶνος oînos οἰνο- oeno- wine oenophile, oenomel
ὁδός hodós ὁδο- hodo- road hodometer, odometer
ὀλίγος olígos ὀλιγο- oligo- few, little oligarchy, oligopoly
ὁμός homós ὁμο- homo- same homogenized, homonym, homosexual
ὅμοιος hómoios ὁμοιο- homoio- similar homeopathy
ὀξύς oxús ὀξυ- oxu- sharp, pointed, acid, keen oxygen, oxymoron, oxycephaly
ὄργανον órganon ὀργαν- organ- an instrument, tool, implement organ, organelle, organic, organist, organism, organization, organize, organon
ὀρθός orthós ὀρθο- ortho- straight, correct, right orthography, orthogonal, orthopedic, orthodox

Π[edit]

p

Citation form Root form Meaning English derivative
πάθος páthos παθ- path- suffering, disease pathology, pathos, telepathy, apathy, sympathy
παιδεία paideía παιδεια- paideia- education, culture encyclopaedia
παῖς paîs παιδ- paid- boy, child paediatrician, pedophilia
παλαιός palaiós παλεο- paleo- old paleontology
πᾶς pâs παν-, παντο- pan-, panto- all, complete pantheism, pantomime
πατήρ patḗr πατρ- patr- father patriarch
περί perí περι- peri around perimeter, periscope
πόλος pólos πολ- pol- axis, sky North Pole, polar, polarize
πολύς polús πολυ- polu- many, much polygon, Polynesia, polyp, polytonic
πρόγραμμα prógramma προγραμμ- programm- program, schedule programmer, multiprogramming
πυρρός purrhós πυρ pir- fire pyrotechnics,pyromaniac, pyrokinesis

Ρ[edit]

r(h)

Citation form Root form Meaning English derivative
ῥεῦμα rheûma ῥευμ- rheum- a flowing, rheum rheumatism, rheum
ῥίς rhís ῥιν- rhin- nose rhinoceros, rhinoplasty

Σ[edit]

s

Citation form Root form Meaning English derivative
σαῦρος saûros σαυρο- sauro- lizard dinosaur
σκοπός skopós σκοπ- skop- observer scope, bishop, telescope
σοφία sophía σοφια- sophia- knowledge, wisdom philosophy, sophistry

Τ[edit]

t

Citation form Root form Meaning English derivative
τῆλε têle τηλε- tēle- distant words with tele-
telephone, telepathy, ...
τόξον tóxon τοξο-, τοξιν- toxo-, toxi- archer’s bow; poison words with toxo-, toxi-, toxico-
toxophily, toxin, ...
τόνος tónos τονο- tono- tone words with tono-, -tone, -tonic, -tonous
tone, monotonous, tonality, ...
τόπος tópos τοπο- topo- place words with topo-, -topic, -tope, -topia, -topy
topography, topic, utopia, ...

Υ[edit]

(h)u, (h)y

Citation form Root form Meaning English derivative
ὕδωρ húdōr ὑδρο- hudro- water hydrodynamics, hydrolysis
ὕπνος húpnos ὑπνο- hupno- sleep hypnotism

Φ[edit]

ph

Citation form Root form Meaning English derivative
φιλία philía friendship philia
φίλος phílos φιλο- philo- friend Philadelphia, philosophy
φόβος phóbos φοβο- phobo- irrational fear
fear
phobia, Phobos,
φυτόν phutón φυτο- phuto- plant neophyte
φωνή phōnḗ φωνη- phōnē- voice microphone, phone, phoneme, phonemic, phonetic, phonetics, phonograph, telephone

Χ[edit]

kh, ch

Citation form Root form Meaning English derivative
χαίτη khaítē χαιτη- khaitē- loose, flowing hair polychaete
χρόνος khrónos χρονο-, ‑χρονος chrono-, -chronous time words with chrono-
words with -chronous, with -chronic, -chronism, -chrony
chronology, chronometer, chronic, anachronism, synchronize, synchrony

Ψ[edit]

ps

Citation form Root form Meaning English derivative
ψάλλω psállō ψαλ- psal- pluck, pull, twitch psalm, psaltery
ψευδής pseudḗs ψευδ- pseud- false, lying pseudonym, pseudograph, pseudo-science, pseudepigraphy, pseudocide
ψιλός psilós ψιλ- psil- mere, bare, smooth psilosis, psilanthropism, psilocybin
ψυχή psukhḗ ψυχ- psych- spirit, mind, soul psyche, psychology, psychotic, psychedelic

Ω[edit]

(h)ō

Citation form Root form Meaning English derivative
ᾠόν ōión ὠο- ōo- egg oocyte, oology
ὥρα hṓra ὡρα- hōra- season, hour horoscope

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]