Appendix:Glossary of baseball jargon (S)
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|Appendix: Glossary of Baseball|
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- The analysis of baseball through objective evidence, especially baseball statistics. The term is derived from the Society for American Baseball Research (SABR). The term was coined by Bill James, an enthusiastic proponent and its most notable figure.
- A sacrifice bunt (also called a sacrifice hit or simply a "sacrifice") is the act of deliberately bunting the ball in a manner that allows a runner on base to advance to another base, while the batter is himself put out. If the sacrifice is successful, the batter is not charged with an at bat (AB). But he is credited with a SAC or S or SH.
- When a batter hits a fly ball to the outfield which is caught for an out, but a runner scores from 3rd base after tagging up or touching the bag following the catch. The batter is credited with an RBI and is not charged with an at bat. Also referred to as "sac fly," abbreviated as SF.
- A squeeze play in which the runner on third waits for the batter to lay down a successful bunt before breaking for home. Contrast this with the suicide squeeze.
- An easily handled pitch.
- A grand slam home run.
- The South Atlantic League ("SAL"), a Class A minor baseball league with teams located mainly in the southeastern United States.
"Say it ain't so, Joe!"
- (idiomatic) An expression of disbelief. A reference to the Black Sox scandal of 1919, when the Chicago White Sox lost the World Series on purpose. When Shoeless Joe Jackson was implicated in the scandal, an apocryphal story says that a young fan approached him and said, "Say it ain't so, Joe!"
- In the MLB Draft, a round of drafts that occurs between the first and second rounds, and again between the second and the third, comprised solely of compensatory drafts granted to teams that failed to sign their first or second round draft picks of the year before.
- In baseball statistics the term save (abbreviated SV, or sometimes, S) is used to indicate the successful maintenance of a lead by a relief pitcher, usually the closer, until the end of the game. A save is credited to a pitcher who fulfills the following three conditions:
- The pitcher is the last pitcher in a game won by his team;
- The pitcher is not the winning pitcher (for instance, if a starting pitcher throws a complete game win or, alternatively, if the pitcher gets a blown save and then his team scores a winning run while he is the pitcher of record, sometimes known as a "vulture win");
- The pitcher fulfills at least one of the following three conditions:
- He comes into the game with a lead of no more than three runs, and pitches at least one full inning.
- He comes into the game with the potential tying run being either on base, at bat, or on deck.
- He pitches effectively for at least 3 innings after entering the game with a lead and finishes the game.
- If the pitcher surrenders the lead at any point, he cannot get a save, even if his team comes back to win. No more than one save may be credited in each game.
- If a relief pitcher satisfies all of the criteria for a save, except he does not finish the game, he will often be credited with a hold.
- The third rule can be contentious, as it is subject to the judgment of the official scorer.
- For more discussion see Save (sport).
- Generally, a save situation is when a pitcher enters the game with a lead of three runs or fewer and finishes the game. Most of the time, the saving pitcher pitches one or more innings.
- A runner on 2nd or 3rd base is in scoring position, as he is presumed to have a good chance to score on a base hit to the outfield.
- A pitch that curves to the same side as the side it was thrown from. The screwball is a rarely used pitch (because of its effect on the arm) that is intended to behave erratically -- it "breaks" in the opposite direction a curveball would break. SYNONYMS: reverse curve, fadeaway, fader, screwgie, scroogie, reverse curveball.
- (idiomatic) Eccentric, zany, or crazy; OED dates this usage to 1933.
seal the win
- 2 seamer – a "two seam fastball" where the ball is held by the pitcher such that, when thrown, its rotation only shows two seams per revolution
- 4 seamer – like a 2 seamer, but the rotation shows 4 seams per revolution of the ball. Batters count the number of visible seams to help judge the kind of pitch by its rotation.
- One who maintains and progresses skills acquired through experience, a veteran.
second base; to get to second base
- (idiomatic) A general reference to advancing physical intimacy with a member of the opposite sex. Commonly used in question form ("Did you get to second base?"). A positive reply typically implies that more than kissing has occurred. Outside of a sexual context, this can mean advancing beyond the first step in a given process, such as landing a job interview when one merely expected to schedule one.
- To anticipate the actions of another through guesswork, or outguess; conversely, to criticize or question actions or decisions of (someone), usually after the results of those actions or decisions are known.
- A spectator who criticizes the actions of a team or the decisions of the umpire; guesser was baseball slang for an umpire, thus such a spectator considered himself a "second umpire". OED dates second-guesser to 1937, second-guess in its predictive sense to 1941, and its critical sense to 1946.
- A batted ground ball that just eludes capture by an infielder, just out of infielder's range, as if it could "see" where it needed to go. Less commonly used for a ball that takes an unusual lateral bounce to elude an infielder.
- The National League, so-called because it is the older of the two major leagues.
- A major league player may be sent down or demoted to a minor league team either before or during the season. When this occurs during the season, another player is usually called up or promoted from the minor leagues or placed on the active roster after being removed from the disabled list.
- A set of games between two teams. During the regular season, teams typically play 3- or 4-game series against one another, with all of the games in the series played in the home park of one of the teams. The set of all games played between two teams during the regular season is referred to as the season series. For games played between teams in a single league, the regular season series includes an equal number of games in the home parks of each team.
- In the playoffs, series involve games played in the home stadiums of both teams, but these series cannot (mathematically) have an equal number of games in the home parks of each team. As a result, teams hope to gain from having a home field advantage by playing the first game(s) in their own ballpark.
set the table
- To get runners on base ahead of the power hitters in the lineup.
- A relief pitcher who is consistently used immediately before the closer.
- The period between the top and bottom of the seventh inning, when the fans present traditionally stand up to stretch their legs. A sing-along of the song Take Me Out to the Ball Game has become part of this tradition, a practice most associated with Chicago broadcaster Harry Caray. Since the September 11, 2001 attacks in the United States, God Bless America is sometimes played in addition to, or in lieu of, "Take Me Out to the Ball Game" in remembrance of those who lost their lives in the attacks, especially at home games of the New York Yankees and New York Mets. This occurs on Opening Day, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, September 11th, Sundays and during the All-Star Game, and post-season including the World Series. In Milwaukee fans often sing "Roll Out the Barrel" after the traditional song.
- A player (usually an outfielder) who positions himself slightly away from his normal spot in the field based on a prediction of where the batter might hit the ball he is said to "shade" toward right or left.
- Where all infielders and/or outfielders position themselves clockwise or counter-clockwise from their usual position. This is to anticipate a batted ball from a batter who tends to hit to one side of the field. Also shade. In the case of some batters, especially with left-handed batters and the bases empty, managers have been known to shift fielders from the left side to the right side of the diamond. The most extreme case was the famous "Ted Williams shift" (also once called the "Lou Boudreau shift"). Cleveland Indians manager Boudreau moved 6 of 7 fielders (including himself, the shortstop) to the right of second base, leaving just the leftfielder playing shallow, and daring Teddy Ballgame to single to left rather than trying to "hit it where they ain't" somewhere on the right side. Williams saw it as a challenge, a game within The Game, and seldom hit the ball to left on purpose in that circumstance.
- One way for a pitcher to doctor the ball is to rub one area of the ball hard to affect the ball's flight toward the plate.
- When a fielder, usually an outfielder, catches a ball just before it hits the ground ("off his shoetops"), and remains running while doing so.
shoot the cripple
- When the pitch count is 3 balls and no strikes, the pitcher is presumed to need to pitch inside in order to obtain a strike. The name comes from the belief that the next pitch will be easy to hit; since the pitcher has to throw a strike in order to pull close in the count, getting a hit will be as easy as "shooting a cripple".
- A ball that bounces immediately in front of an infielder. If the batter is a fast runner, an infielder may intentionally "short hop the ball" (take the ball on the short hop) to hasten his throw to first base.
- The major leagues. Particularly "in the Show." Or in "the Bigs" (big leagues, major leagues).
- According to the Dickson dictionary, the term derives from horseracing, in which a bettor arrives at the window too late to place a bet, due to the race already having started, so the bettor is said to be "shut out" (this specific usage was referenced in the film The Sting).
- A team shuts out its opponent when it prevents them from scoring any runs in a given game.
- "Santana shut out the Royals with a 3-hitter" means that the Royals went scoreless as Santana pitched a complete-game shutout. The pitcher or pitchers on the winning team thus get statistical credit for an individual shutout or a combined-to-pitch-shutout, respectively.
shuts the door
- Term used to describe when a pitcher, generally the closer, finishes the ballgame with a save or makes the last out.
- When the third out of an inning is called, the "side is retired" and the other team takes its turn at bat. A pitcher or a defensive team can be said to have "retired the side." The goal of any pitcher is to face just three batters and make three outs: to "retire the side in order," have a "one-two-three inning," or have "three up, three down."
- A catcher is said to call the game by sending signs to the pitcher calling for a particular pitch. After he moves into his crouch, the catcher gives the sign by placing his non-glove hand between his legs and using his fist, fingers, wags, or taps against his inner thigh to tell the pitcher what type of pitch to throw (fastball, curve, etc.) as well as the location. A pitcher may wave off (shake his head "no" to) the initial sign or nod in agreement when he receives the sign that he wants before going into his windup. If there is a runner on second base, a catcher may change the location of his glove (from his knee to the ground, for example) to signal the pitcher that he is using an alternate set of signs so that the runner won't be able to steal the sign.
- A coach sends signs to players on the field, typically using a sequence of hand movements. He may send signs to offensive players, including batters and runners, about what to do on the next pitch — for example, to sacrifice bunt, to take or to swing away at the next pitch; to steal a base; or to execute a hit-and-run. He may send signs to the catcher to call for a pitchout or to intentionally walk the batter.
- A one-base hit.
- A pitch, typically a fastball, that breaks sharply downward as it crosses the plate. Also see drop ball.
sitting on a pitch
- A batter who is waiting for a particular type of pitch before swinging at it. He may be sitting in waiting for, say, a curveball or a change-up, or a pitch thrown in a certain location, and he won't swing at anything else even if it's down the middle of the plate. Sometimes hitters who know a pitcher's pattern of pitches, or what type of pitch he likes to throw in a given count, sit on that particular pitch. This approach stems from the advice Rogers Hornsby gave to Ted Williams, telling him that the secret to hitting was simply to "wait for a good pitch to hit".
skipper or skip
- A hitter who sacrifices power for batting average, trying to make contact with the ball and "hit it where they ain't". Prime examples: Ty Cobb, Tony Gwynn, Rod Carew, and Ichiro Suzuki.
- When a fly ball or line drive starts out over fair territory, then curves into foul territory due to aerodynamic force caused by spinning of the ball, imparted by the bat. A slice curves away from the batter (ie: it curves to the right for a right-handed batter and to the left for a left-handed batter).
- A slide is when a player drops to the ground when going into a base, to avoid a tag and (in the case of second or third base) as a means of stopping, so as not to overrun the base and risk being put out. Players also sometimes slide head-first into first base. If former St. Louis Cardinals pitcher and Hall of Famer Dizzy Dean had seen something like that, he'd probably have said the player never should have "slud into first".
- A team having a losing streak is in a slide or on the skids.
- A relatively fast pitch with a slight curve in the opposite direction of the throwing arm.
- To hit with great power.
- Any person who commonly hits with great power, but sometimes used in reference to a child to boost their ego.
- A measure of the power of a hitter, calculated as total bases divided by at bats. Often abbreviated as SLG or SA. Just as a "perfect" batting average would be 1.000 (read "one thousand") a "perfect" slugging average would be 4.000 (read "four thousand").
- An extended period when player or team is not performing well or up to expectations. A dry spell or drought.
- A strategy by which teams attempt to score runs using station-to-station, bunting and sacrifice plays; usually used in a situation where one run will either tie or win the game; manufacturing runs; close kin to inside baseball.
- A pitcher who "throws smoke" throws so hard that the batter is likely only to see the ball's smoke trail.
- When a play-by-play reporter exclaims "That ball was smoked!" he implies that it was hit so hard that all you could see of the ball is its (imaginary) smoke trail.
- Descriptive of a catch made with the ball barely caught in the tip of the webbing. Variant on "ice cream cone".
- A fielder's ability to cradle the ball well in his glove. Contrast hard hands.
- A pitcher who doesn't have a really fast fastball. "Jones, a soft tosser when compared to the Tigers’ other hard throwers, struck out Posada, retired Cano on a soft fly, and got Damon to fly out."
solo home run
- A home run hit when there are no runners already on base. The batter circles the bases solo.
- The tendency for players to follow a good rookie season with a less-spectacular one. (This term is used outside the realm of baseball as well.) Two of the most notorious examples are Joe Charboneau and Mark Fidrych. The statistical term for the sophomore jinx is "regression to the mean".
- Left-hander, especially a pitcher. Most baseball stadiums are built so that home plate is in the west and the outfield is in the east, so that when the sun sets it is not in the batter's eye. Because of this, a left-handed pitcher's arm is always facing south when he faces the plate. Thus he has a "southpaw."
- Originally, according to OED, it meant the left hand itself (1828), then by extension to a left-handed pitcher (1891), then in non-baseball usage (referring to a cat, 1955); the final transition to a non-athletic left-handed person in general makes its print appearance in 1970.
- A fast player, often collecting stolen bases, bunt singles and/or infield hits.
- A runner can "spike" an infielder by sliding into him and causing an injury with the spikes of his shoes.
- A spitball pitch in which the ball has been altered by the application of spit, petroleum jelly, or some other foreign substance.
- A fastball that breaks sharply toward the ground just before reaching the plate due to the pitcher's grip; his first two fingers are spread apart to put a downward spin on the ball. Also called a splitter or a forkball.
- A player's splits are his performance statistics broken down or split into categories such as batting average against right-handed vs. left-handed pitchers, in home games vs. away games, or in day games vs. night games. When statistics are split in such a way they may reveal patterns that allow a manager to use (perhaps to platoon) a player strategically where he can be most effective. Sabermetricians may use such splits to investigate patterns that explain overall performance, including topics such as whether a pitcher may have doctored the ball during home games.
- In Major League Baseball, spring training consists of work-outs and exhibition games that precede the regular season. It serves the purpose of both auditioning players for final roster spots and giving players practice prior to competitive play. The managers and coaches use spring training to set their opening-day 25-man roster.
- A tactic used to attempt to score a runner from third on a bunt. There are two types of squeeze plays: suicide squeeze and safety squeeze. In a suicide squeeze, the runner takes off towards home plate as soon as the pitcher begins his throw toward home plate. In a safety squeeze, the runner waits until the batter makes contact with the ball before committing himself to try to reach home.
- A nubber.
- The starting pitcher (or "starter") is the first pitcher in the game for each team. A starter is expected to pitch at least five innings, in contrast with relievers who often pitch just three, two or one or even fractional innings. In fact, by the scoring rules, a starter must complete five innings in order to qualify as the winning pitcher in the game, though he need face only a single batter to become the losing pitcher if his team immediately falls behind and stays behind for the remainder of the game.
- Oddly enough, this term can mean completely different things. It can be referred to as a close relative of inside baseball, where hit-and-runs and base-stealing are frequent. It can also mean its exact opposite, where a team takes fewer chances of getting thrown out on the bases by cutting down on steal attempts and taking the extra base on a hit; therefore, the team will maximize the number of runs scored on a homer.
- Statheads use statistical methods to analyze baseball game strategy as well as player and team performance. They use the tools of sabermetrics to analyze baseball. See Evolution of baseball player evaluation.
- Short for "statistics", the numbers generated by the game: runs, hits, errors, strikeouts, batting average, earned run average, fielding average, etc. Most of the numbers used by players and fans are not true mathematical statistics, but the term is in common usage.
- When a team that is at bat tries to see the sign the catcher is giving to the pitcher (indicating what type of pitch to throw), the team is said to be stealing signs. This may be done by a runner who is on base (typically second base) watching the catcher's signs to the pitcher and giving a signal of some kind to the batter. (To prevent this, the pitcher and catcher may change their signs when there is a runner on second base.) Sometimes a first-base or third-base coach might see a catcher's signs if the catcher isn't careful. In unusual cases, the signs may be read through binoculars by somebody sitting in the stands, perhaps in center field, and sending a signal to the hitter in some way.
- When a hitter is suspected of peeking to see how a catcher is setting up behind the plate as a clue to what pitch might be coming or what the intended location is, then the pitcher will usually send the hitter a message: stick it in his ear.
step up to the plate; (to) step up
- (idiomatic) To rise to an occasion in life. Refers to when a player must approach home plate to take a turn at batting. OED cites baseball usage in 1875, general usage in 1919.
stick it in his ear
- "Stick it in his ear!" is a cry that that may come from fans in the stands, appealing to the home team pitcher to be aggressive (throw the ball at the opposing batter). The line is attributed originally, however, to Leo Durocher.
- In baseball, a stolen base (or "steal") occurs when a baserunner successfully advances to the next base while the pitcher is delivering the ball to home plate. In baseball statistics, stolen bases are denoted by SB. If the catcher thwarts the stolen base by throwing the runner out, the event is recorded as caught stealing (CS). Also see uncontested steal.
- A player who misplays easy ground balls. Also see hard hands. Pittsburgh Pirates first-baseman Dick Stuart was given the label "Stone Fingers" (a reference to the James Bond movie (Goldfinger) as well as the nickname "Dr. Strangeglove" (a reference to the movie Dr. Strangelove).
- This term originally referred to a team's best starting pitcher, who would be called upon to stop a losing streak. Now it refers to the a team's top relief pitcher.
strand the runner
- To leave a runner on base, especially in scoring position, is to "strand the runner." This phrase is often used when a runner reaches base with no outs or one out but the rest of the offense fails to get him home. A lead-off hitter who hits a triple but does not score is one of most disappointing examples of stranding a runner. The odds favor his scoring in this situation. On average when a team has a runner on third with no outs, it scores 1.5 runs, and the team scores at least 1 run 86% of the time.
- To stretch a hit is to take an additional base on a hit, typically by aggressive running. "Damon stretched that single to a double with his hustle." "Glaus got caught trying to stretch a double to a triple."
- To pitch from a stretch is to begin the pitching motion by facing sideways relative to home plate, raising one's arms at the elbow and bringing the glove hand and pitching hand together in a full stop, then hurling the ball toward the plate. This is the usual pitching motion when there are men on base, so that the pitcher can check on the runners before throwing home. Sometimes, however, pitchers use a stretch even when the bases are empty.
- When a batter swings at a pitch, but fails to hit the ball within the baselines or when a batter does not swing and the pitch is thrown within the strike zone, or when the ball is hit foul and the Strike Count is less than 2 (a batter cannot strike out on a foul ball, however he can fly Out)
strike em out/throw em out
- A double play in which a batter strikes out and the catcher then immediately throws out a baserunner trying to steal.
strike out (three strikes, you're out; a strike against you; he was born with two strikes against him, etc.)
- When the batter swings at and misses a pitch, or when the pitch crosses the strike zone without the batter swinging. A batter with three strikes is out and stops batting.
- (idiomatic) A failure or shortcoming. When a person has "gotten three strikes" and "struck out", they have failed completely. For example, the "three strikes laws" refer to more severe punishments for criminals with a third conviction. Someone seeking romance with another person may "strike out" and fail to impress on a first meeting. See also A swing and a miss.
strike out the side
- A pitcher is said to "strike out the side" when he retires all three batters in a half inning by striking them out, not necessarily in a row
- An imaginary box used to call strikes (see image here). The Rules Book definition is that the strike zone "is that area over home plate the upper limit of which is a horizontal line at the midpoint between the top of the shoulders and the top of the uniform pants, and the lower level is a line at the hollow beneath the kneecap. The strike zone shall be determined from the batter's stance as the batter is prepared to swing at a pitched ball." When, in the plate umpire's judgment, the ball passes through the strike zone and the batter does not swing, one strike is called (a called strike as opposed to a swinging strike).
- The formal definition of the upper limit of the strike zone is sometimes reduced to "the letters", i.e., the area of the uniform shirt where the team's name usually appears; or, as some plain-speaking types say, "the nipple line". (Taking the anatomical comparisons further, the ever-earthy Ted Williams used to describe certain good pitches to hit as being "at cock level"). (More genteel commentators usually describe this type of pitch as being "belt-high.")
- Despite the formal rules, umpires differ in the strike zones that they recognize. Major League Baseball has experimented in recent years with the QuesTec system, which uses laser light technology to standardize the zone and to measure umpires' personal strike zones. But balls and strikes are still called by umpires, not machines. Whether a pitch is a ball or a strike is typically the focal point of arguments during a game. The rules prohibit managers from leaving the dugout to protest ball-and-strike calls, the penalty for which is ejection.
struck out looking
- A batter called out on strikes without swinging on the third strike is said to have "struck out lookin'."
- Suppose a pitcher has three excellent pitches (fastball, slider, and change-up), a high-90 mph fastball, great command, excellent location, a rubber arm. Bound for stardom, right (assuming no injury)? Only if he has excellent stuff. A pitcher's "stuff" is an overall evaluation of how effective his pitches are; it is "good stuff" when the pitches are difficult to hit, and usually just "stuff" or sometimes even "lousy stuff" when the pitches are poor. Many factors, including location, velocity, movement, delivery, and intangibles like weather and rest, influence the quality of a pitcher's stuff on any given day.
- A pitcher who throws with such a severe sidearm motion that the pitch comes from below his waist, sometimes near the ground. (A submariner does not throw underhanded, as in fastpitch softball.) See submarine.
- When two teams from the same city or metropolitan area play a series of games, they are presumed to be so near to one another that they could take the subway to play at their opponent's stadium. Mets vs. Yankees would be (and is) called a subway series; a Cubs vs. White Sox series would be an "L" series; and a series between the Oakland A's and the San Francisco Giants would be (and was) the "BART" series. However, a series between the Los Angeles Dodgers and the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim would not be a subway series, because there is no subway or other rail service between Dodger Stadium and Angel Stadium of Anaheim (not even the fabled but fanciful line between "Anaheim, Azusa and Cuc...amonga").
- A squeeze play in which the runner on third breaks for home on the pitch, so that, if the batter does not lay down a bunt, then the runner is an easy out (unless he steals home). Contrast this with the safety squeeze.
- The Major League Baseball All-Star Game. These annual games pit the all-stars of the National League against the all-stars of the American League. A game designed only to acknowledge and showcase the achievements of the best players in each league. Since 2003 it has been a bit more important than an exhibition game, however, because the winning league gets home-field advantage in the World Series.
- To take all the games in a series between two teams, whether during the regular 162-game season or during the league championships or World Series. During the regular season, pairs of teams typically square off in several 3- or 4-game series at the home parks of each team. It is also thus possible for one team to sweep a 3- or 4-game series, the "home series" (all the games a team plays at its home field against another given team), the "road series," or the "season series" between two teams.
- A player who can hit from both sides of the plate, i.e., he bats both left-handed and right-handed. The reason many natural right-handers learn to either bat left-handed exclusively or to switch-hit, is to give them an advantage at the plate, due to (1) the fact that most pitchers (like most humans) are naturally right-handed and (2) it can boost their ability to hit for power. A right-handed pitcher's natural throwing motion tends to bring the ball "in" toward a left-hand batter, and "away" from a right-hand batter. Thus, a player who hits well in general, and about equally well either way, is considered an asset because he is not subject to platooning of left-hand vs. right-hand pitchers. Most, if not all, switch-hitters are natural right-handers.
- Some famous switch hitters were Pete Rose, and Mickey Mantle. In contrast, there is the old joke told by Joe Garagiola, about a nameless switch-hitter who could bat "three ways: right-handed, left-handed... and seldom!"
- (slang) A bisexual p, according to the OED, 1960.
Return to Appendix:Glossary of baseball
- ^ OED
- ^ OED
- ^ OED
- ^ OED
- ^ A recent example is in the analysis of Detroit Tigers pitcher Kenny Rogers' home- and away-game stats to see whether they are consistent with the suspicion that he may be doctoring the ball in home games. See Nate Silver, "Comforts of home; Rogers better at Comerica, but is the success legit?" SportsIllustrated.com (October 23, 2006).
- ^ OED
- ^ Tangotiger, Sabremetrics 101: Run Expectancy Matrix, 1999-2002]
- ^ See "Jack Benny's Anaheim - April 2001," City of Anaheim history.
- ^ OED