Appendix:Latin verbs (A to K)

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search
Crystal Clear filesystem trashcan full.png This appendix has been nominated for deletion(+)
Please see that page for discussion and justifications. Feel free to edit this appendix as normal, though do not remove the {{rfd}} until the debate has finished.
See also Appendix:Latin verbs (L to Z)

This list of Latin verbs includes all four principal parts (three in the case of deponent verbs, semi-deponent verbs, and certain passives) of the verbs in this order (all are 1st person, singular, active, indicative):

  • Each verb on this list includes lists of English derivatives of these verbs (except when there are none). Any verb cited within the etymology of another verb is included in the list and the derivatives of each will be found at the least complex verb (example- the derivative accessible is found under cēdere rather than accēdere) EXCEPT when 1. the assumed relation of the more complex verb to the simpler verb involves an unattested form (see sūmō) or 2. the complex verb contains a noun or adjective instead of a prefix (see aedificare).
  • Many of these derivatives contain affixes or their forms are considerably different from their Classical Latin forms. Many have also undergone semantic change and their modern meanings may be difficult to relate to the Latin etymon. Also, only a limited number of meanings is given for each Latin verb. In any of these cases it is best to look at that specific word's etymology. The List of English prefixes and List of English suffixes may also be helpful. The internal links for the prefixes ab-, ad-, con-, and ex- may also help explain phonological changes of a given word. The external links [1] within the text go to the hypothetical Indo-European root for that particular verb.


First PP Second PP Third PP Fourth PP Meaning Derivation
abluō abluere abluī ablūtus "to wash away" From ab- + luere (see luō); see lavō for derivatives.
accēdō accēdere accessī accessum "to come up to, approach" From ad- + cēdō.
accendō accendere accendī accēnsus "to set fire to" From ad- + candō.
accidit accidere accidit "it happens" From ad- + cadō.
accipiō accipere accēpī acceptum "to accept, receive" From ad- + capiō
adiūtō adiūtāre adiutāvī adiutātum "to help" From ad- + iutō, from iutum, the passive perfect participle of iuvāre (see iuvō); derivatives adjutant, aid.
adveniō advenīre advēnī adventum "to arrive" From ad- + veniō.
aedificō aedificāre aedificāvī aedificātum "to build, erect buildings" From aedis ("building", originally "hearth, fireplace") + facere (see faciō); derivatives edification, edifice, edify.
agō agere ēgī actum "to do, act, drive, conduct, lead, weigh, manage" cf. Gr. ἄγω Derivatives act, active, actor, actual, actualism, actuary, actuate, agenda, agent, agile, agitation, allege, ambage, ambiguous, assay, cache, coagulation, cogent, essay, exact, exacta, examination, exigent, exiguous, fumigation, fustigate, intransigent, levigate, litigate, navigate, objurgate, prodigal, redaction, retroactive, squat, transaction, variegation.[2]
ambulō ambulāre ambulāvī ambulatum "to walk" Derivatives alley, alley oop, ambulance, ambulate, andante, funambulist, perambulator, preamble.[3]
amō amāre amāvī amatum "to love" Derivatives amore, amour, paramour.
aperiō aperīre aperuī apertum "to open, uncover" Derivatives aperient, apéritif, aperture, overt, overture, pert.[4]
appellō appellāre appellāvī appellatum "to call (by name), entreat, speak to, accost" From ad- + pellō. Derivative appellation.
arceō arcēre arcuī "to enclose, keep out/off, prevent, stop" No direct derivatives; see exerceō.
ardeō ardēre arsī arsum "to burn, be on fire" From aridus ("dry, parched"), from arēre.
areō arēre "to be dry" Derivatives ardent, ardor, arid, arson.
ascendō ascendere ascendī ascensum "to climb" From ad- + scandere. Derivatives ascend, ascendant.
audiō audīre audīvī audītum "to hear" Derivatives audible, audience, audile, audio, audit, audition, auditor, auditorium, auditory, oyez, obey, subaudition. [5]
augeō augēre auxī auctus "to increase, augment" auction, augend, augment, author, authorize.[6]


First PP Second PP Third PP Fourth PP Meaning Derivation
bibō bibere bibī "to drink" Derivatives beverage, bib, bibulous imbibe, imbrue.[7]


First PP Second PP Third PP Fourth PP Meaning Derivation
cadō cadere cecidī cāsum "to fall, kill, die, be killed, happen, fail, belong" cadaver, cadence, cadent, caducous, cascade, case, casual, casualty, casuist, chance, chute accident, decay, deciduous, escheat, incident, occasion, occident, recidivism [8]
caedō caedere cecīdī caesus "to cut, kill, hack (at), strike" abscise, caesura, cement, cestus, chisel, –cide as in suicide, circumcise, concise, decide, excise, incise, precise, recision, scissors [9]
candeō candēre canduī "to shine, glitter, be shining white, be white-hot" candelabrum, candelilla, candent, candescence, candid, candida, candidate, candle, candor, incandescence [10]
canō canere cecinī cantum "to sing" accent, canorous, cant, cantabile, cantata, canticle, cantillation, canto, cantor, canzone, chant, chanteuse, chantey, chanticleer, chantry, descant, enchant, incantation, incentive, precentor, recant, shanty [11]
capiō capere cēpi captum "to take, capture" cable, cacciatore, caitiff, capable, capacious, capacity, capias, capstan, caption, captious, captivate, captive, captor, capture, catch, cater, chase, cop, copper accept, anticipate, catchpole, conceive, conception, deceive, except, inception, inceptive, incipient, intercept, intussusception, municipal, nuncupative, occupant, occupy, participation, perceive, precept, receive, recipe, recover, recuperation, susceptible [12]
caveō cavēre cāvī cautum "to guard against, beware of, watch out" caution, caveat, cave canem
cēdo cēdere cessi cessus "to go, move, concede, withdraw, yield, leave" abscess, accede, access, accessible, ancestor, antecedent, cease, cede, cession, concede, decease, exceed, expulsion,incessant, intercede, precedent, predecessor, procession, recession, retrocede, secession, succession [13]
cēnō cēnāre cēnāvī cēnātum "to dine" From cēna "meal". Derivative cenacle [14]
cieō ciēre cīvī citus "to set in motion, rouse, bring about, make" cite, excite, incite, oscitancy, resuscitate, solicitous [15]
circumveniō circumvenīre circumvēnī circumventum "to surround, go around" From circum + venīre.
clāmō clāmāre clāmāvī clāmātum "shout, call, cry out" acclaim, claim, clamant, clamor, declaim, exclaim, proclaim, reclaim [16]
claudō claudere clausī clausum "to shut, close" clause, claustrophobic, cloister, close, close, exclude, include, preclude, recluse, seclude, seclusion
cognoscō cognoscere cognōvī cognitum "to know(both in knowledge and in acknowledgement)" acquaint, cognition, cognizance, connoisseur, incognito, notice, notify, notion, notorious, quaint, recognize, reconnaissance, reconnoiter [17]
colligō colligere collēgī collectum From con- + legō.
colō colere coluī cultum "to cultivate, till, inhabit, worship" colony, cult, cultivate, culture, Kultur, incult, inquiline, nidicolous, silvicolous [18]
comedō comedere comēdī comēsum "to eat"
compellō compellāre compellāvī compellatum "to drive (together), compel, force" From con- + pellō.
condō condere condidī conditus "to found, establish, put" abscond, incondite, recondite, sconce [19]
cōnficiō cōnficere cōnfēcī cōnfectum "finish" From con- + faciō.
cōnfidō confīdere confīsus sum "to trust" From con- + fīdō.
coniciō conicere coniēcī coniectus "to hurl" From con- + iaciō.
conspiciō conspicere conspexī conspectum "to catch sight of" From con- + speciō.
cōnstituō cōnstituere cōnstituī cōnstitūtum "to set up, erect, settle (on)" From con- + statuō.
contendō contendere contendī contentum "stretch, aim, strain, exert" From con- + tendō.
conveniō convenīre convēnī conventum " to (go to) meet, interview, walk, march, agree" From con- + veniō.
convocō convocāre convocāvī convocātum "to convoke" From con- + vocō.
crēdō crēdere crēdidī creditum "to lend, loan, believe, trust, accept as true" credence, credible, credit, credo, credulous, creed, grant, incredible, miscreant, recreant [20]
crēsco crēscere crēvī crētus "to grow (up), increase, arise, come into being" accrue, concrescence, concrete, crescendo, crescent, crew, decrease, excrescence, increase, recruit [21]
cupio cupěre cupīvī or cupiī cupītum "to wish, be eager for, long for, desire" covet, covetous, cupescence, Cupid, cupidity
cūrō cūrāre cūrāvī cūrātum "to take care of, look after" curative, cure, procure, secure, security
currō currere cucurrī cursum "to run (hard, over), traverse, pass, skim over" concourse, concur, corral, corrida, corrido, corridor, corsair, courante, courier, course, current, cursive, cursor, curule, decurrent, discourse, excursion, hussar, incur, intercourse, kraal, occur, percurrent, precursor, recourse, recur, succor [22]

custōdiō custōdīre custōdīvī custōdītum "to guard, protect, watch (over), hold in custody" From cust-ōs, -ōdis "guard." custodian, custodial, custody [23]


First PP Second PP Third PP Fourth PP Meaning Derivation
dēbēo dēbēre dēbuī dēbitum "to have to, owe, be responsible for, be obliged to" ALSO "I ought to, I must" debenture, debit, debt, devoir, due, duty, endeavor [24]
dēdō dēdere dēdidī dēditum "to give up, surrender" (no direct English derivatives) From de- + dō.
dēfendō dēfendere defendī dēfensum "to defend, protect" From de- + fendere (attested only in prefixed compound verbs; see offendo). defend, defense, fence, fend
dēpōnō dēpōnere dēposuī dēpositum "to put down/aside, get rid of, deposit” From de- + pōnō.
despērō despērāre despērāvī despērātum "to despair, give up hope" From de- + spērō.
dīcō dīcere dīxī dictum "to speak, say, mean" addict, benediction, condition, contradict, dictate, diction, dictum, ditto, ditty, edict, fatidic, herb bennet, indict, indiction, indite, interdict, juridical, jurisdiction, maledict, malison, predict, valediction, verdict, veridical, voir dire [25]
dictō dictāre dictāvī dictātum "to say (again), reiterate, suggest, remind" Frequentative verb formed from passive perfect participle of dīcō.
dīmittō dīmittere dīmīsī dīmissus "to send away, let go, dismiss" From di- + mittō.
discēdō discēdere discessī discessum "to go away, depart leave" From dis- + cēdō (no direct English derivatives, but see cēdō).
discō discere didicī "to learn, get to know, be told" disciple, discipline [26]
dare dedī datus "to give, offer, dedicate, pay out" add, betray, dado, date, dative, data, datum, die, edition, perdition, render, rendition, rent, surrender, tradition, traitor, treason, vend [27]
doceō docēre docuī doctum "to teach, i.e. to cause to accept" docent, docile, doctor, doctrine, document [28]
dormiō dormīre dormīvī dormītum "to sleep" dorm, dormancy, dormant, dormer, dormitory, dormouse
dūcō dūcere dūxī ductum "to lead, bring" abducens, abduct, adduce, aqueduct, circumduction, con, condottiere, conduce, conduct, deduce, deduct, doge, douche, ducal, ducat,duce, duchess, duchy, duct, ductile, duke, educe, endue, induce, introduce, produce, redoubt, reduce, seduction, subduction, subdue, traduce, transducer [29]


First PP Second PP Third PP Fourth PP Meaning Derivation
edō ēsse OR edere ēdī ēsus "to eat" edacious, edible, escarole, esculent, esurient; comedo, comestible, obese [30]
efficiō efficere effēcī effectum From ex- + facere (see faciō).
emō emere ēmī ēmptum "to buy, pay (for), take, gain, obtain, bribe" ademption, example, exemplary, exemplify, exemplum, exempt, impromptu, peremptory, preemption, premium, prompt, pronto, ransom, redeem, redemption, sample, vintage [31]
īre īī itum "to go" adit, ambient, ambition, circuit, coitus, comitia, exit, introit, issue, obituary, perish, praetor, preterit, preterite, sedition, subito, sudden, trance, transient, transit, transitive [32]
errō errāre errāvī errātum "to wander, err" aberration, err, erratic, erratum, erroneous, error
ēvādō ēvādere ēvāsī ēvāsum "to escape" From ex- + vādō.
ēvigilō ēvigilāre ēvigilāvī ēvigilātum "to be awake, to watch/work/etc. through the night" (no direct derivatives) BUT from ex- + vigilō.
excitō excitāre excitāvī excitātum "to awaken, excite" From ex- + citare (citus, frequentative from passive perfect participle of cieō)
exeō exīre exīī exitum "to go out" From ex- + eō.
exerceō exercēre exercuī exercitus "to train, exercise" From ex- + arceō. exercise
exspectō exspectāre exspectāvī exspectātum "to wait (for), expect" From ex- + the passive perfect participle of speciō.
exstinguo exstinguere exstingui exstinctum


First PP Second PP Third PP Fourth PP Meaning Derivation
faciō facere fēcī factum "to make, do, fashion, create, frame, build" affair, affect, affection, amplify, artifact, artificial, beatification, benefactive, benefic, benefice, beneficence, benefit, chafe, comfit, confectionery, confetti, counterfeit, defeasance, defeatism, defect, deficient, discomfit, effect, efficacy, efficient, -facient, facsimile, fact, faction, factitious, factitive, factor, factotum, faena, fashion (verb), feat, feature, feckless, fetish, -fic, -fy, forfeit, hacienda, infect, justify, malefactor, malfeasance, manufacture, misfeasance, modifier, mollifiers, nidify, notification, nullifiers, officinal, orifice, perfect, petrify, pluperfect, pontifex, prefect, proficient, profit, putrefy, qualify, quantify, rarefy, rectify, refect, refectory, rubefacient, sacrifice, satisfy, spinifex, suffice, sufficient, surfeit, tubifex, tumefacient, vivify [33]
faveō favēre fāvī fautum "to favor, support" favor, favorite
ferō ferre tulī lātum "to carry, bear" From principal parts 1 & 2: afferent, circumference, confer, defer, differ, efferent, –fer (as in aquifer), fertile, infer, offer, prefer, proffer, refer, suffer, transfer, vociferous[34]
From principal part 4: ablation, ablative, allative, collate, dilatory, elate, elative, illation, illative, legislator, oblate, prelate, prolate, relate, sublate, superlative, translate [35]
festīnō festīnāre festīnāvī festīnātum "to hurry, bustle, speed (up)" festinate, festination
fīdō fīdere fīsus sum "to trust, confide (in)" affiance, affiant, affidavit, confidant, confide, confident, defiance, defy, diffident, fiancé, fiducial, fiduciary, perfidy [36]
fiō fierī factus sum "to become" fiat [37]
fleō flēre flēvī flētum "to weep" feeble
frangō frangere frēgī frāctum "to break" anfractuous, chamfer, defray, diffraction, fractal, fracted, fraction, fractious, fracture, fragile, fragment, frail, frangible, infract, infrangible, infringe, irrefrangible, ossifrage, refract, refrain, refringent, sassafras, saxifrage, septifragal [38]
fugiō fugere fūgī fūgitum "to flee" centrifuge, feverfew, fugitive, refugee, tempus fugit


First PP Second PP Third PP Fourth PP Meaning Derivation
gaudeō gaudēre gāvīsus sum "to rejoice, be happy, look forward to" enjoy, gaud, gaudy, joy, rejoice [39]
gerō gerere gessī gestum "to carry, bear, wear" dentigerous, gesticulation, gesture


First PP Second PP Third PP Fourth PP Meaning Derivation
habeō habēre habuī habitum "to hold, possess, have, handle" able, avoirdupois, binnacle, cohabit, exhibit, habile, habit, habitable, habitant, habitat, inhabit, inhibit, malady, prebend, prohibit, provender
habitō habitāre habitāvī habitātum "to live (somewhere), dwell" From habeō.


First PP Second PP Third PP Fourth PP Meaning Derivation
iaceō iacēre iacuī iacitum "to lie (down), be situated, i.e. to be thrown" From iaciō.
iaciō iacere iēcī iactus "to throw, cast" abject, adjacent, adjective, amice, circumjacent, conjecture, deject, ejaculate, eject, gist, gite, inject, interject, jactitation, jess, jet, jeté, jetsam, jettison, jetty, joist, jut, object, parget, project, reject, subjacent, subject, superjacent, traject [40]
imperō imperāre imperāvī imperātum "to give orders, demand, (be in) command" From in- + parō.
incendō incendere incendī incensus "to light (up), set on fire, burn, make bright, inflame, excite, enrage" From candō or just from the same root incendiary, incense, incense, frankincense [41]
induō induere indui indūtum "to don (something), put on (clothes)" endue, indue, indument [42]
ineō inīre iniī initum "to start, begin, enter" From in- + eō or simply from the same base and thought of as a compound in Latin. commence, initial, initiate
īnsum inesse īnfuī infutūrus (no direct English derivatives) From in- + sum.
intellegō intellegere intellēxī intellēctum "to gather, understand" From inter- + lěgo.
intersum interesse interfuī interfutūrus "to be in, among" From inter- + sum.
intrō intrāre intrāvī intrātum "to enter" From intra- + -are (verbal suffix). enter, entrance
inveniō invenīre invēnī inventum "to find, come upon, discover, invent" From in- + veniō
invideō invidēre invīdī invīsuum "to envy, begrudge, be jealous" From in- + videō.
iubeō iubēre iussī iussum "to order, decree, designate, appoint" jussive
iuvō iuvāre iūvī iūtum "to help, give an advantage (to), benefit" (no direct derivatives, but see adiuvō)


  • The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language Fourth Edition [43]
  • "The Bantam New College Latin & English Dictionary" by John C. Traupman (ISBN 0-553-57301-2)