Appendix:Latin verbs (L to Z)

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search
Crystal Clear filesystem trashcan full.png This appendix has been nominated for deletion(+)
Please see that page for discussion and justifications. Feel free to edit this appendix as normal, though do not remove the {{rfd}} until the debate has finished.
See also Appendix:Latin verbs (A to K)

DISCLAIMER: This Appendix does not contain ALL Latin Verbs. This is unfinished and being edited.

This list of Latin verbs includes all four principal parts (three in the case of deponent verbs, semi-deponent verbs, and certain passives) of the verbs in this order (all are 1st person, singular, active, indicative):


Present Infinitive Past perfect Passive perfect participle Meaning Derivation
labōrō labōrāre laborāvī labōrātum "to work (hard), toil, be worried/concerned about" labor, laboratory
laudō laudāre laudāvī laudātum "to praise, name, quote, eulogize" < laus, laudis "praise, fame" laud, laudable, laudation, laudative, laudatory
lavō lavāre, lavere lavāvī lavātum, lautum, lōtum "to wash, bathe, moisten, wet, wash away" ablution, alluvion, colluvium, deluge, dilute, eluent, elute, eluvium, launder, lavabo, lavage, lavatory, lave, lavish, loment, lotion
lego legere lēgī lectus "to collect, gather, read, recite" coil, collect, diligent, elect, florilegium, intellect, intelligent, lectern, lection, lecture, legend, legible, legion, lesson, neglect, prelect, sacrilege, select, sortilege
līberō līberāre liberāvī līberātum "to (set) free (from), pay for" < liber (adj.) "free" + -are (verbal suffix) deliberate, deliver, liberal, liberate, libertine, liberty, livery
linquō linquěre līquī "to leave (alone), forsake" (no direct English derivatives, but see relinquō)
lūceō lūcēre lūxī "to shine" < lux, lucis "light" or simply from same root. elucidate, lucent, lucid, lucidity, noctiluca, pellucid, relucent, translucent
lūdō lūdere lūsī lūsum "to play, mimic, deceive" allude, allusion, collude, collusion, delude, delusion, elude, illusion, interlude, ludic, ludicrous, prelude, prolusion
luō luere luī "to wash" (no direct English derivatives, but see lavō)


Present Infinitive Past perfect Passive perfect participle Meaning Derivation
mālō mālle māluī "to prefer, be inclined to" māvolō < magsvolō < magis (adverb) "more, to a greater degree" + see volō (no direct English derivatives, but see volō, velle)
maneō manēre mansī mansum "to stay, wait, remain" immanent, manor, manse, mansion, ménage, permanent, remain
mittō mittěre mīsī missus "to send, let go of, let fly, let out" admission, admit, commission, commit, emission, emit, intermission, intermit, permission, permit, promise, submission, submit, transmission, transmit
moneō monēre monuī monitum "to warn, advise, remember" demonstrate, monish, monition, monitor, monster, monument, muster, premonition, summon, money


Present Infinitive Past perfect Passive perfect participle Meaning Derivation
nārrō nārrāre nārrāvī nārrātum "to tell, narrate" < gnarrāre (not attested) "to tell, relate" < gnārus "knowing, expert" narrate, narration, narrator
nāvigō nāvigāre nāvigāvī nāvigātum "to sail, steer a ship" < nāvis "ship" + agere (see agō) circumnavigate, navigate
noceō nocēre nocuī nocitum "to injure, do harm, hurt" innocent, innocuous, nuisance, noise
nōlō nōlle nōluī "to refuse, be unwilling" < ne "not" + see volō, velle
numerō numerāre numerāvī numerātum "to number, enumerate" enumerate


Present Infinitive Past perfect Passive perfect participle Meaning Derivation
occīdo occīdere occīdī occīsum "to set (of the sun, to fall, die)" < ob- + cadō
occulo occulere occuluī occultum "to hide, conceal"
occurrō occurrere occurrī occursum "to meet (something or someone)" < ob- + currō
offendō offendere offendī offensum "to bump (against), hit (upon), shock, injur (reputation)" < ob- + (see defendō) offend, offense
oppugnō oppugnāre oppugnāvī oppugnātum "to attack" < ob- + pugnō
opprimō opprimere oppressi (?) oppressum
ōrō ōrāre orāvī ōrātum "to pray" orate, oration, oratorian,
ostendō ostendere ostendī ostentum "to show, display, stretch (out), expose, make known" < ob(s)- + tendō


Present Infinitive Past perfect Passive perfect participle Meaning Derivation
pāreō pārēre pāruī pāritum "to obey, be visible" (no direct English derivatives, but see appāreō)
parō parāre parāvī parātum "to make/get ready, furnish, get, procure" rampart, repair, separate, sever, several
pellō pellere pepulī pulsus "to push, strike, thrust, rouse, repel" appeal, compel, compellation, dispel, expel, impel, impulse, peal, pelt, poussette, pulsate, pulse, propel, push, rappel, repeal, repel
perdō perdere perdidī perditum "to lose, waste, destroy" < per- + dō
perficiō perficere perfēcī perfectum "to carry out, complete" < per- + faciō
perveniō pervenīre pervēnī perventus "to arrive, reach" < per- + veniō
petō petere petīvī, petīī petītus "to seek, pursue, strive for, ask for, attack" appetite, compete, impetigo, impetuous, impetus, perpetual, -petal, petition, petulant, repeat
placeō placēre placuī placitum "to please, satisfy, seem right" complacent, placebo, placid, plea, plead, pleasant, please
plicō plicāre plicāvī plicātum "to fold, wind, coil up" accomplice, apply, complicate, complice, complicity, deploy, display, employ, explicate, explicit, exploit, implicate, implicit, plait, pleat, pliant, plica, plicate, plight, plissé, ply, replicate, reply, splay [2]
pōnō pōněre posuī positus, postus "to put, set, place, lay, build, found" composition, compost, compote, compound, contrapposto, depone, deposit, dispose, exponent, expose, expound, impose, impost, impost, interpose, juxtapose, oppose, position, positive, post, post, postiche, posture, preposition, propose, provost, punt, reposit, suppose, transpose
portendō portenděre portentī portentus "to indicate, foretell, portend" < por (variant of pro-) + tendō
portō portāre portāvī portātum "to carry" comport, deport, export, import, important, port, portable, portage, portamento, portative, porter, portfolio, purport, rapport, report, sport, support, transport
poscō poscere poposcī "to demand" (no English derivatives)
possum posse potuī "to be able, be powerful" impotent, omnipotent, possible, potent, prepotent
praetereō praeterīre praeteriī praeteritus "to go past, pass" < praeter "beyond" + eō
prōcēdō prōcēdere prōcessī prōcessum "to proceed" < prō- + cedō
prōmittō prōmittere promīsī prōmissum "to promise" < prō- + mittō
prōvideō prōvidēre provīsī prōvīsum "to foresee, to provide/guard (for/against)" < prō- + videō
pugnō pugnāre pugnāvī pugnātum "to punch, to fight, oppose, struggle with" < pugnus "fist" or simply from the same root. impugn, oppugn, poniard, pugilism, pugil stick, pugnacious, repugn
pungō pungere pupungī, pepungī punctus "to prick, sting, dent, bite, stab" point, pointillism, pontil, pounce, pounce, punch, puncheon, punctilio, punctual, punctuate, puncture, pungent, spontoon, trapunto


Present Infinitive Past perfect Passive perfect participle Meaning Derivation
quaerō quaerere quaesīvī quaesītum "to ask, seek" conquest, conquistador, query, quest, question, request
quiēsco quiēscere quiēvī quiētum "to rest" acquiesce,acquit, coy, quiet, quit, quitclaim, quite, quitrent, requiescat requiescat in pace (R.I.P.)


Present Infinitive Past perfect Passive perfect participle Meaning Derivation
rapiō rapere rapuī raptum "to take, snatch, seize, steal" erepsin, rapacious, rape, rapid, rapine, rapt, rapture, ravage, raven, ravin, ravish, subreption, surreptitious
recitō recitāre recitāvī recitātum "to read aloud, recite" < re- + citus, the passive perfect participle of cieō
reddō reddere reddidī redditum "to give back, return (to somewhere)" < re(d)- + dō
redeō redīre rediī reditum "to go back, return" (no English derivatives) < re(d)- + eō
referō referre rettulī relātum "to bring back, report" < re- + ferō
regō regere rēxī rectus "to straighten, keep straight, guide (morally), command, rule, govern" address, adroit, alert, correct, direct, erect, incorrigible, insurgent, insurrection, porrect, realm, rectangle, rectify, rectilinear, rectitude, recto, rector, rectum, rectus, regent, regime, regimen, regiment, region, resurge, Risorgimento, sord, source, surge
relinquō relinquere relīquī relictum "to leave behind" < re- + linquō delinquent, derelict, relic, relinquish
repellō repellere reppulī repulsum "to drive/push back, repel" < re- + pellō
resistō resistere restitī restitum "to resist" < re- + sistō
respondeō respondēre respondī responsum "to respond, call back, promise back" < re- + spondeō
retineo retinēre retinuī retentum "to hold back, retain" < re- + teneō
rideō ridere rīsī rīsum "to laugh (at), ridicule" deride, derision, derisive, ridicule, ridiculous, risible
rogō rogāre rogāvī rogātum "to ask (for)" abrogate, arrogant, arrogate, corvée, derogate, interrogate, prerogative, prorogue, rogation, rogatory, subrogate, supererogate
rumpō rumpere rūpī ruptum "to burst, break" abrupt, bankrupt, corrupt, disrupt, erupt, interrupt, irrupt, rout, rupicolous, rupture
ruō ruere ruī rutum "to rush" (no English derivatives)


Present Infinitive Past perfect Perfect passive participle Meaning Derivation
salūtō salūtāre salutāvī salūtātum "to greet, wish well to, welcome, hail (as)" <salūs "health, whole/sound condition" salubrious, salutary, salutation, salute
scandō scandere scandī scānsum "to climb, scale, mount" ascendency, condescend, descend, scan, scandent, scansion, scansorial, scantling, transcend
scrībō scrībere scrīpsī scrīptum "to write" ascribe, circumscribe, conscript, describe, festschrift, inscribe, manuscript, postscript, prescribe, proscribe, rescript, scribble, scribe, script, scriptorium, Scripture, serif, shrive, subscribe, superscribe, transcribe
sedeō sedere sēdī sessum "to sit, settle (down), hold court, stay fixed, preside" assess, assiduous, assize, dissident, insessorial, insidious, obsess, possess, preside, reside, séance, sedentary, sederunt, sedile, sediment, sessile, session, sewer, siege, subsidy, supersede, surcease
serviō servīre servīī servītum "to serve, be a slave, comply with, conform to" < servus "slave" (possibly from Etruscan) (see servō for derivatives)
servō servāre servāvī servātum "to serve, preserve, keep, watch over" < servus "slave" (possibly from Etruscan) conservation, conserve, deserve, preservation, preserve, reservation, reserve, servant, serve, service, servile
sinō sinere sīvī, sīī situm "to allow, set down" site, situate, situation
sistō sistere stitī, stetī status "stand, cause to stand, put, set (up)" < stō or simply from same root assist, consist, desist, exist, insist, interstice, persist, resist, subsist
solvō solvere solvī solūtus "to loosen, untie, cast off" absolute, absolve, assoil, dissolve, resolute, resolve, soluble, solute, solution, solve]]
speciō specere spexī spectus "to look at" aspect, circumspect, conspicuous, despise, expect, frontispiece, inspect, introspect, perspective, perspicacious, prospect, respect, respite, retrospect, specimen, spectacle, spectrum, speculate, speculum, spice, spiegeleisen, suspect, transpicuous
spectō spectāre spectāvī spectātum "to look at" < spectus, the perfect passive participle of speciō
spērō spērāre spērāvī spērātum "to hope (for), expect, look forward to, trust" despair, desperate, esperance, Esperanto, prosper
spondeō spondēre spopondī sponsus "to promise, pledge, vow, vouch (for)" despond, despondent, espouse, respond, sponsor, spouse
statuō statuere statuī statūtum "plan, erect, build i.e. cause to stand" causative formed from the perfect passive participle of stō
stō stāre stetī statum "to stand, last, endure" arrest, circumstance, constant, constitute, contrast, cost, destitute, distant, establish, estancia, extant, instant, institute, obstacle, obstetric, oust, prostitute, rest, restharrow, restitute, restive, stable, stage, stance, stanch, stanchion, stanza, state, statistics, stative, stator, statue, stature, status, statute, stay, stet, substance, substitute, superstition
studeō studēre studuī "to be eager, keen on, apply oneself, study" etui, student, studio, studious
suādeō suādēre suāsī suāsus "to recommend, urge, persuade" persuade, dissuade, suasion
succurrō succurrere succurrī succursus "to run to help, succor" < sub- + currō
sum esse fuī futūrus "to be, exist, belong/pertain to" (from principal part 2)- abessive, absent, adessive, entity, essence, essive, improve, inessive, interest, ossia, present, proud, quintessence, represent, stover (from principal part 4)- future
sūmō sūmere sumpsī sumptus "take (up), put on, consume, borrow adopt" < sus(e)mere (unattested) < sub- + emō assume, consume, presume, resume, subsume, sumptuary, sumptuous
superō superāre superāvī superātum "to overcome" < super- + -are (verbal suffix) (no English derivatives)
surgō surgere surrēxī surrēctum "to rise up, surge" < sub- + regō


Present Infinitive Past perfect Passive perfect participle Meaning Derivation
taceō tacēre tacuī tacitum "to be silent" tacit, taciturn
temptō temptāre temptāvī temptātum "to test, feel, attempt, try" attempt, tempt, temptation
tendō tendere tetendī tentus, tensus "to stretch (out), hold out, strain, aim" < or simply from same base as tenēre (See teneō) attend, contend, detent, distend, extend, intend, ostensible, ostentation, portend, pretend, subtend, tend, tender, tense, tent
teneō tenēre tenuī tentus "to hold (tight), detain, keep, grasp, comprehend," abstain, contain, continue, detain, entertain, lieutenant, maintain, obtain, pertain, pertinacious, rein, retain, retinaculum, retinue, sustain, tenable, tenacious, tenaculum, tenant, tenement, tenet, tenon, tenor, tenure, tenuto
timēo timēre timuī "to fear, be fearful" intimidate, timid, timidity, timorous
tollō tollere sustulī sublātum extol (see also ferō)
trādō trādere trādidī trādītum "to give/hand over, deliver, surrender, betray < trans- + dō)
transeō transīre transiī transitum "to cross, go across" < trans- + eō


Present Infinitive Past perfect Passive perfect participle Meaning Derivation
ūtor ūtī ūsus sum "to use" abuse, peruse, use, usual, usufruct, usurious, usury, utile, utility, utilities


Present Infinitive Past perfect Passive perfect participle Meaning Derivation
vādō vādere vāsī ”to go, make one's way, advance” evade, evasion, invade, invasion, pervade
vehō vehere vēxī vectus ”to carry, convey, transport” advection, convection, evection, invective, inveigh, vector, vehement, vehicle
vendō vendere vendidī venditum ”to sell, advertise, recommend, betray” < vēnum, "(that which is for) sale" + dō; vend, vendor
veniō venīre venī ventum ”to come” advent, adventitious, adventure, avenue, circumvent, contravene, convene, convenient, convent, conventicle, convention, coven, covenant, event, eventual, intervene, invent, inventory, misadventure, parvenu, prevenient, prevent, provenance, provenience, revenant, revenue, souvenir, subvention, supervene, venire, venue
versō versāre versāvī versātum ”to keep turning, whirl, twist, turn” < passive perfect participle of vertō
versor versārī versātus sum ”to live (somewhere, stay, frequent, behave, revolve)” < passive perfect participle of vertō
vertō vertere vertī versum ”to turn” adverse, anniversary, avert, bouleversement, controversy, converse, convert, dextrorse, divert, evert, extrorse, extroversion, extrovert, introrse, introvert, invert, malversation, obverse, obvert, peevish, pervert, prose, retrorse, revert, sinistrorse, subvert, tergiversate, transverse, universe, versatile, verse, version, versus, vertebra, vertex, vertigo, vortex
vexō vexāre vexāvī vexātum ”to worry, annoy, vex” vex
videō vidēre vīdī vīsum ”to see, look (at) consider, understand, know, seem/appear” advice, advise, belvedere, black-a-vised, clairvoyant, envy, evident, improvise, interview, invidious, previse, provide, prudent, purvey, purview, review, revise, supervise, survey, vide, view, visa, visage, vision, visit, visor, vista, voyeur
vigilō vigilāre vigilāvī vigilātum ”to be/stay awake, to be watchful/alert” reveille, surveillant, vedette, vigil, vigilant, vigilante
vincō vincere vīcī victum ”to conquer” convict, convince, evict, evince, vanquish, victor, vincible
visitō visitāre visitāvī visitātum ”to visit, i.e. to keep seeing” frequentative of visō
vīsō vīsere vīsī vīsum ”to look at attentively, to go to look at, to visit” < passive perfect participle of videō
vīvō vīvere vīxī vīctum ”to live” convivial, revive, survive, viand, victual, viva, vivacious, vivid
vocō vocāre vocāvī vocātus ”to call (upon) name, summon, invoke” advocate, avocation, convoke, equivocal, evoke, invocation, invoke, provoke, revoke, univocal, vocable, vocation, vouch
volō velle voluī ”I wish, I am willing” benevolence, malevolence, velleity, volition, voluntary
volō volāre volāvī volātum ”to fly” volant, volatile


  • The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language Fourth Edition [3]

See also[edit]