Appendix:List of Proto-Igboid reconstructions

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The following list of Proto-Igboid reconstructions is from Blench & Williamson (2016).

List[edit]

Gloss Proto-Igboid Proto-Igboid (Williamson)
wealth *V-kʊ̀̃
squeeze *-pɪ̌
carry *-pá
horn (music) *ò-pì
smashed (be) *-pyá
hornbill *á-`-pɪ́ỹã́
increase *-bá`
pear *ù-bẽ́
heart, chest *ó-bìù
nation, tribe *ḿ-bà
tortoise *ḿbè
nail, claw *ḿbɔ̀
they *-ɓɛ́
hate + hatred *-ɓé í-`-ɓéè
food *-ɓé í-`-ɓéè
firewood *ɓɛ́-ɪ ̃̀-kʊ́̃ɪ ̃́ N
germinate, sprout *-pú
go/come out *-pʊ̌
carry (on head) *-bú
hatch *-bʊ̌
bush *ɔ́-fʸá
market (n.) *á-fʸá
uproot, harvest *-vʊ̀̃
scramble for *-vʊ́̃
bush *ɔ́-fyá
market (n.) *á-fyá
grass/weed *ɛ́-fɪ́fyá
hornbill *á-pyá
carry (in hand) *-pá
increase *-bá`
horn (music) *ò-`- pì
heart, chest *ó-bìù
squeeze out (liquid) *-pã̌
carve, sharpen (to a point) *-pyɪ ̃́(ɔ́)
slice (v.) *-bĩ́yẽ́
enter *-bã̀ã́
nose *é-`-mí
suck (v.) *-mɪ̀
I, me *m̀-mɪ́
do, act, make *-mé
jaw *à-`-gbã̀
canoe, boat *ʊ́-`-gbɔ́ɔ̀
bark, shout at *-gbɔ́ɔ̀
kill *-gbú
beat (of rain, sun) *-ŋmã́
caught in a trap (be) *-ŋmã́
learn *-ŋmʊ̀
sharpen (knife) *ŋmʊ́ʃɪ́
theft *ɓú-ò-sĩ́
slave *ó-`-sù
crowd, community *ʊ̀-`-sã̀
cane-rat *ɓù-ĩ̀-kĩ̀ N
bush-cow, buffalo *á-tsʊ́̃
follow, accompany *-tsõ̌
millipede *é-`-tũ̂ N
set on fire *-tsú N
full (be), fill *-ʤúyì
refuse (v.) *-ʤʊ́
sound (v.) *-dã̌
fall (v.) *-dã
bottom *ɔ́dʊ̃̀
tail *ɔ́dʊ̃̀
small black ant *ńdã́ńdã́
salt *ń-nú
you (pl.) *á-nʊ̀
cloudy (be), threaten (of rain) *rù[lù] *-ɗwǔ
flesh *úrù *í-ɗù
reach *rú[lú] *-ɗúù N
heavy (be) *-ɲɪ̀
charcoal *úɲìrì
friend *éɲì
hand, arm *έ-ká
crab *ɔ̀(~ŋ)-ʧɔ́ꜜkɔ́lɔ́
wing *ŋ̀-kù
sow, plant (seed) *-kʊ́̃
fight, war (n.) *ɔ̀-gʊ̀̃
listen *-gẽ̀
guinea-fowl *ɔ̀gàzì
money *éꜜgṍ
buy *-gṍ
leave, let off *-ɣà
pluck (as fruit) *-ɣɔ̀
drink (v.) *-ŋʊ́
happy, glad (be) + happiness *-ŋʊ̀[rɪ́]
tools, materials *ŋ́-gʷã́
sew *-kʷá
bargain, ‘price *-kʷê
weave (cloth) *-kʷẽ́
foot, leg *ʊ́kʷʊ́
tell *-gʷá
take, choose *-gʷè[ru]
crowd, large number *ì-gʷè
stab *-gʷú
roast (e.g. yam) *-hʊ́̃
world, fate *ʊ̀-wà
grey hair *V-wɔ̀
pour *-wʊ́
law *ì-wú
spring, stream *í-ˋ-yǐ
oath *í-ˋ-yV̀Cí
cold(ness) (n.) *ó-ˋ-yV̀Cí
castrated goat *ò-kèì-ɗì N
rope *è-ɗí-`-Îí
cook (v.) *-tí N
dry (fish, meat) *-ŋmɪ́
scorpion *á-`-kpɪ̀
crawl, creep *-ɗɪ̌Cɪ́
germinate, sprout *-pú
carry (on head) *-bú
goat *é-`-wû
bat (n.) *ʊ́-`-twʊ́
learn *-ŋmʊ̀
blow (with mouth) *-pwʊ̌
fight, war (n.) *ɔ̀-gʊ̀̃
leopard *á-ꜜgʊ́̃
hatch *-bʊ̌
roast (e.g. yam) *-hʊ́̃
black kite *é-gbé
cook (soup) *-té
cooked (be) *-wé
god of madness *έ-gʷʊ̃̀
madness *ɛ́-Îá
weight, heaviness *έ- ˋ-ɗɪ́w̃ à ?/Îʊ̃ỹã
town *ò-bò-dò
metal gong *ò-gé-lè
swallow *ɲo [?]
follow, accompany *-tsõ̀
hide (v.) (self/thing) *-dzṍ
bellows *é-kõ̀
again *ɔ̀zɔ́
nail, claw *ḿbɔ́
cut up, eviscerate *-bɔ̀ɔ́
trim (with scissors) *- ʧà
lick *-rá
drink (v.) *-rá
sling/hang *-ɲǎ
eldest son *ɔ́-kpã́-rã́
jaw *à-gbã̀
name (n.) *V́-kpã̀
do, act, make *-mé
mould, forge *-kpʊ́
kill *-gbú
crowd, community *ʊ̀-hã̀
pot *ìtè
duiker *ŋm̀-gbà-dã̀
bring up *zʊ̀Cʊ́
jump *-wʊ̀Cʊ́
listen *-gòné
egg *ɛ́-kpã̀
leopard *á-ꜜgʷʊ̃́
tooth *íꜜzé
sand, soil *V́ -ꜜʤã́
darkness *ɔ̀ʧɪ́ꜜʧɪ́rɪ́

References[edit]

Vocabulary lists of African languages
Nilo-Saharan

p-Nilotic • p-Surmic • p-Central Sudanic • p-Kuliak (Ik) • p-Nubian • p-Daju • p-Jebel • Berta • Gumuz • p-Koman • Shabo • Amdang • Maban • Kunama • Kanuri • p-Songhay

Niger-Congo

p-Benue-Congo • p-Edoid • p-Akokoid • p-Igboid • p-Upper Cross River • p-Lower Cross River • p-Ogoni • p-Ukaan • p-Nupoid • p-Ijaw • p-Gbe • p-Guang

Afroasiatic

p-Central Chadic • p-Cushitic • p-Omotic