Appendix:List of Proto-Indo-European roots/ḱ

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Root Meaning Derivatives
*ḱak- branch Old Armenian: ճիւղ (čiwł)
Lithuanian: šakà
Latvian: saka
Sanskrit: शाखा (śā́khā)
Russian: соха́ (soxá)
Albanian: thekë
Gothic: 𐌷𐍉𐌷𐌰 (hōha)
Kamviri: [script needed] (coa)
Old Prussian: sagnis
Old Irish: géc
Irish: géag
Welsh: cainc
Old High German: huohili
Persian: شاخه (šāxe(h))
*ḱas- gray Latin: cānus, cascus
Sanskrit: षष (ṣaṣa)
Old High German: hasan, haso
German: Hase
Old Prussian: sasins
Old English: hasu, hara
English: hare
Old Norse: hǫss, heri
Welsh: cannu, ceinach
Pashto: [script needed] (soe)
*ḱat- battle Old Church Slavonic: котора (kotora)
Gaulish: catu
Old English: heaþu
Old High German: hathu
German: Hader
Sanskrit: शातयति (śātayati)
Old Norse: hoð
Old Irish: cath
Irish: cath
Welsh: cad
Tocharian B: keta
Hittite: [script needed] (kattu)
Ancient Greek: κότος (kótos)
*ḱeh₂d- hate Old English: hete
English: hate
Old High German: haz
German: Hass
Gothic: 𐌷𐌰𐍄𐌹𐍃 (hatis)
Old Norse: hatr
Sanskrit: रिशादस् (riśā́das)
Avestan: 𐬯𐬁𐬛𐬭𐬀 (sādra)
Ancient Greek: κῆδος (kêdos)
Oscan: [script needed] (cadeis amnud)
Old Irish: caiss
Irish: cais
Welsh: câs, cawdd
Tocharian A: kat
*ḱey- to lie; settle Old Armenian: սէր (sēr)
Lithuanian: šeima
Old Church Slavonic: сѣмьꙗ (sěmĭja)
Old English: hām
English: home
Old High German: heim
German: Heim
Old Norse: heimr
Latin: cīvis, cūnae
Old Irish: coím
Irish: caoimh
Ancient Greek: κεῖμαι (keîmai), κώμη (kṓmē)
Sanskrit: क्षेति (kṣéti), शेते (śḗtē)
Avestan: 𐬱𐬀𐬉𐬌𐬙𐬌 (šaēiti)
*ḱel- warm Latvian: silts
Lithuanian: šilti
Old Irish: clithe
Welsh: clyd
Old Norse: hlǽr
Old English: hlēow, hlēo
English: lukewarm, lee
Old High German: lāo
German: lau
Sanskrit: शिशिर (śiśira), शरद् (śarad)
Latin: caleō, calidus
French: chaud
Kurdish: sarr
*ḱer- horn Latin: cerĕbrum, cervus, cornū
Russian: се́рна (sérna), че́реп (čérep)
Old Prussian: kerpetis, sirwis
Ancient Greek: κέρας (kéras)
Avestan: 𐬯𐬭𐬏 (srū), 𐬯𐬭𐬎𐬎𐬁 (sruuā), 𐬯𐬀𐬭𐬀𐬵 (sarah)
Sanskrit: शिरस् (śíras), शृङ्ग (śṛ́ṅga)
Old Armenian: սար (sar)
Breton: kern, karn
Old High German: hirni, horn
German: Hirn, Horn
Old Norse: hjarni, horn Persian: سر (sar), شاخ (šāx)
Tocharian B: krāñi
Ossetian: сӕр (sær), сыкъа́ (syk’á)
Albanian: krye, sorkadh
Old English: horn
English: horn
Kamviri: [script needed] (ṣiṅ)
Gothic: 𐌷𐌰𐌿𐍂𐌽 (haurn)
Hittite: [script needed] (karawar)
Lithuanian: širšė
Latvian: sirsis
Gaulish: karnuks
Old Irish: cern
Irish: cearn
Polish: krowa
Kurdish: ser
*ḱerh₂- to mix Old English: hrēr
English: rare
Old High German: hruoren
German: rühren
Old Norse: hrǿra
Sanskrit: श्रायति (śrāyati)
Avestan: 𐬯𐬀𐬭 (sar)
Ancient Greek: κρατήρ (kratḗr)
*ḱers- to run Latin: currō
Gaulish: carros
Ancient Greek: ἐπίκουρος (epíkouros)
Welsh: carrog
Old Irish: carr
Tocharian A: kursär
Tocharian B: kwasär
Old High German: horsk, hros
German: Ross
Old Norse: horskr, hross
Old English: horsc, hors, hrȳscan
English: horse, rush
*ḱley- to lean Latin: clīnō
Old Irish: clóin
Ancient Greek: κλίνη (klínē)
Old English: hlēonian
English: lean
Old Armenian: լեառն (leaṙn)
Lithuanian: šlieti
Latvian: sliet
Russian: слой (sloj)
Sanskrit: श्रयति (śrayati)
Avestan: 𐬯𐬭𐬌𐬥𐬎 (srinu)
Old High German: hlīnen
German: lehnen
Welsh: clwyd
Old Prussian: slayan
Tocharian A: kälyme
Tocharian B: kälymiye
Gothic: 𐌷𐌻𐌰𐌹𐌽 (hlain)
Old Norse: hlein
Albanian: qye
*ḱlep- to steal Latin: clepō
Ancient Greek: κλέπτω (kléptō)
Old Armenian: գող (goł)
Gothic: 𐌷𐌻𐌹𐍆𐌰𐌽 (hlifan)
Old Irish: clúain
Old Prussian: auklipts
Lithuanian: slė̃pti
Latvian: slēpt
*ḱlew- clean Latin: cloāca
Ancient Greek: κλύδων (klúdōn)
Gaulish: Cluad
Old English: hlūttor
Lithuanian: šluoti
Latvian: slaumi
Russian: слеза́ (slezá)
Welsh: clir
Old High German: hlūttar
German: lauter
Gothic: 𐌷𐌻𐌿𐍄𐍂𐍃 (hlutrs)
Old Norse: hlér
Old Church Slavonic: сльза (slĭza)
*ḱlew- to hear Latin: clueō
Gaulish: clu
Ancient Greek: κλέος (kléos)
Illyrian: *cleves
Lithuanian: klausýti, šlovė̃
Latvian: klausīt
Old Church Slavonic: слово (slovo)
Russian: сло́во (slóvo)
Sanskrit: श्रु (śru), शृणोति (śṛṇoti)
Avestan: 𐬯𐬎𐬭𐬎𐬥𐬀𐬊𐬌𐬙𐬌 (surunaoiti)
Old High German: hlūt
German: laut
Old English: hlūd
English: loud
Tocharian A: klots, klāw
Tocharian B: klautso, klāw, klyos
Old Norse: hljóðr
Gothic: 𐌷𐌻𐌹𐌿𐌸 (hliuþ)
Old Armenian: լու (lu)
Albanian: quaj, quhem
Polish: słowo
Welsh: clod, clywed
Old Irish: ro·cluinethar, cloth
*ḱon- shell Latin: congius
Ancient Greek: κόγχος (kónkhos)
Sanskrit: शङ्ख (śaṅkhá)
*ḱubʰ- shoulder Latin: cubitus
Albanian: sup
Old High German: huf
German: Hüfte
Old English: hype
English: hip
Ancient Greek: κύβος (kúbos)
Avestan: 𐬯𐬎𐬞𐬙𐬌 (supti)
Sanskrit: शुप्ति (śúpti)
Gothic: 𐌷𐌿𐍀𐍃 (hups)
Welsh: gogof
Persian: شانه (šāne)
*ḱwen- holy Lithuanian: šventas
Latvian: svinēt
Russian: свято́й (svjatój)
Avestan: 𐬯𐬞𐬀𐬥𐬌𐬌𐬀𐬵 (spaniiah)
Gothic: 𐌷𐌿𐌽𐍃𐌻 (hunsl)
Polish: święty
Old Prussian: swints
Old Norse: hunsl
Old English: hūsel
English: housel
Old Church Slavonic: свѧтъ (svętŭ)