Appendix:List of Proto-Indo-European roots/d

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Root Meaning Derivatives
*deh₁- to bind Albanian duaj; Ancient Greek δέω ‎(déō); Sanskrit द्यति ‎(dyáti); Avestan [script needed] ‎(nī.diiātąm)
*dayh₂wḗr husband's brother Sanskrit देवृ ‎(devṛ́); Russian деве́рь ‎(devérʹ); Polish dziewierz; Lithuanian dieverìs; Latvian dieveris; Old High German zeihhur; Old English tācor; Ancient Greek δαήρ ‎(daḗr); Old Armenian տագր ‎(tagr); Old Church Slavonic дѣвєрь ‎(děverĭ); Kurdish diş; Latin lēvir
*deh₃- to give Russian дать ‎(datʹ); Old Armenian տամ ‎(tam); Lithuanian dúoti; Latvian dot, deva; Sanskrit ददाति ‎(dádāti); Avestan [script needed] ‎(dadāiti); Ossetian дæттын ‎(dættyn); Albanian dhashë; Ancient Greek δίδωμι ‎(dídōmi); Kashmiri [script needed] ‎(dẏyūn); Polish dać; Phrygian [script needed] ‎(dadón); Old Prussian dātwei; Latin ; Oscan [script needed] ‎(dede); Umbrian [script needed] ‎(dadad); Irish dán; Welsh dawn; Hittite [script needed] ‎(); Lycian [script needed] ‎(da); Luwian [script needed] ‎(da-); Lydian [script needed] ‎(da-); Gaulish doenti; Old Church Slavonic дати ‎(dati); Old Persian 𐎭𐎭𐎠𐎬𐎺 ‎(dadātuv); Persian دادَن ‎(dādan)
*dem-h₂- to domesticate; tame Sanskrit दाम्यति ‎(dāmyati); Ancient Greek δαμνάω ‎(damnáō); Old Irish damnaid; Hittite [script needed] ‎(damaašzi); Avestan [script needed] ‎(dam); Latin domō; Old English tam; English tame; Old High German zemmen; German zähmen; Gothic 𐌲𐌰𐍄𐌰𐌼𐌾𐌰𐌽 ‎(gatamjan); Old Norse temja; Ossetian домын ‎(domyn); Persian دام ‎(dām); Welsh addef
*dewk- to lead Albanian nduk; Old English togian; English tow; Old High German ziohan; German ziehen; Gothic 𐍄𐌹𐌿𐌷𐌰𐌽 ‎(tiuhan); Old Norse toginn; Ancient Greek ἀδευκής ‎(adeukḗs); Latin dūcō
*deḱs- right (direction) Gaulish Dexsiva; Latin dexter; Umbrian [script needed] ‎(destrame); Lithuanian dešinė; Avestan [script needed] ‎(dašina); Albanian djathtë; Old High German zeso; Welsh de; Oscan [script needed] ‎(destrst); Ancient Greek δεξιός ‎(dexiós); Sanskrit दक्षिण ‎(dákṣiṇa); Gothic 𐍄𐌰𐌹𐌷𐍃𐍅𐌰 ‎(taihswa); Irish deas; Tocharian A täk; Old Church Slavonic дєснъ ‎(desnŭ); Russian десни́ца ‎(desníca); Kashmiri [script needed] ‎(dạchūn)
*diks- goat Albanian dhi; Old English ticcen; Old High German ziga; German Ziege; Old Armenian տիկ ‎(tik); Wakhi [script needed] ‎(tiγ); Ishkashimi [script needed] ‎(dec)
*dʰǵʰyes- yesterday Old English geostran; English yesterday; Albanian dje; Sanskrit ह्यस् ‎(hyas); Avestan [script needed] ‎(zyō); Old Persian [script needed] ‎(diyaka); Persian دیگ ‎(dīg); Ancient Greek χθές ‎(khthés); Latin herī; Welsh ddoe; Irish inné; Gothic 𐌲𐌹𐍃𐍄𐍂𐌰𐌳𐌰𐌲𐌹𐍃 ‎(gistradagis); Old Norse í gǽr; Old High German gesteron; German gestern
*dlegʰ- to engage oneself Old Irish dliged; Irish dlí; Welsh dyled; Latin indulgeō; Russian долг ‎(dolg); Polish dług; Old Church Slavonic дльгъ ‎(dlĭgŭ)
*dl̥h₁gʰós long Hittite [script needed] ‎(dalugaes); Russian до́лгий ‎(dólgij); Lithuanian ilgas; Latvian ilgs; Sanskrit दीर्घ ‎(dīrghá); Avestan [script needed] ‎(darəga); Welsh dala, dal; Latin longus; Gaulish Loggostalētes; Old Persian 𐎭𐎼𐎥 ‎(darga); Persian دراز ‎(darāz; dirāz); Old English lang, lencten; English long, Lent; Old High German lang, lenzo; German lang, Lenz; Old Norse langr; Gothic 𐌻𐌰𐌲𐌲𐍃 ‎(laggs); Albanian gjatë; Ancient Greek δολιχός ‎(dolikhós); Old Prussian ilgi; Old Church Slavonic длъгъ ‎(dlŭgŭ); Polish długi; Kashmiri [script needed] ‎(dūr)
*dn̥ǵʰwéh₂s tongue Latin lingua; Old Irish tengae; Irish teanga; Old English tunge; English tongue; Gothic 𐍄𐌿𐌲𐌲𐍉 ‎(tuggō); Old Norse tunga; Sanskrit जिह्वा ‎(jihvā́); Avestan [script needed] ‎(hizvā); Russian язы́к ‎(jazýk) Lithuanian liežùvis; Old Armenian լեզու ‎(lezu); Old High German zunga; German Zunge; Welsh tafod; Kamviri [script needed] ‎(dic); Old Persian [script needed] ‎(hizbāna); Persian زَبان ‎(zabān); Old Prussian insuwis; Tocharian A käntu; Tocharian B kantwo
*dṓm house Sanskrit दम ‎(dáma); Avestan [script needed] ‎(dąm); Ancient Greek δόμος ‎(dómos); Latin domus; Russian дом ‎(dom); Polish dom; Old English timber; English timber; Old High German zimbar; German Zimmer; Old Norse timbr; Umbrian [script needed] ‎(dâmoa); Old Armenian տուն ‎(tun); Lithuanian nãmas; Latvian nams; Tocharian A tam; Tocharian B täm
*dows- forearm Sanskrit दोस् ‎(dos); Avestan [script needed] ‎(daoš); Old Irish doít, doíd; Lithuanian dilbis; Latvian paduse; Russian па́зуха ‎(pázuxa); Persian دوش ‎(doš)
*dra- to run Sanskrit द्राति ‎(drā́ti); Russian удира́ть ‎(udirátʹ); Ancient Greek ἀπόδρασις ‎(apódrasis), δρόμος ‎(drómos); Illyrian Dravos; Lithuanian drebėti; German Trappel; Gothic 𐌰𐌽𐌰𐍄𐍂𐌹𐌼𐍀𐌰𐌽 ‎(anatrimpan); Avestan [script needed] ‎(draonah)
*drem- to sleep Russian дрема́ть ‎(dremátʹ); Sanskrit द्रायति ‎(drāyati); Ancient Greek δαρθάνω ‎(darthánō); Latin dormiō; Old Armenian տարտամ ‎(tartam); Polish drzemać; Old Church Slavonic дрємлю ‎(dremlju)
*dus- to fail Sanskrit दुष्यति ‎(duṣyati); Avestan [script needed] ‎(duš); Ancient Greek δέω ‎(déō); Irish do-; Old Armenian տ- ‎(t-); Gothic 𐍄𐌿𐌶- ‎(tuz-); Old Norse tjón; English tēona; Old High German zur-; Old Church Slavonic дъждь ‎(dŭždĭ); Russian дождь ‎(doždʹ); Polish deszcz; Old Persian [script needed] ‎(dušiyaram);
*dwóh₁; *dwó two Old Armenian երկու ‎(erku); Albanian dy; Lithuanian du, dvi; Latvian divi; Gaulish vo; Old High German zwene; German zwei; Old English twā; English two; Ancient Greek δύο ‎(dúo); Avestan [script needed] ‎(duua); Hittite [script needed] ‎(dā-); Old Irish ; Irish ; Kashmiri [script needed] ‎(zū'); Lycian [script needed] ‎(tuwa); Kamviri [script needed] ‎(); Latin duo; Oscan 𐌃𐌖𐌔 ‎(dus); Old Norse tveir; Old Prussian dwāi; Ossetian дыууæ ‎(dywuæ); Old Persian [script needed] ‎(duva); Persian دو ‎(do); Old Church Slavonic дъва ‎(dŭva); Polish dwa; Russian два ‎(dva); Sanskrit द्व ‎(dva); Tocharian A wu; Tocharian B wi; Umbrian 𐌕𐌖𐌚 ‎(tuf); Gothic 𐍄𐍅𐌰𐌹 ‎(twai); Welsh dau
*dáḱru- tear
(drop from eye)
Ancient Greek δάκρυ ‎(dákru); German zahar/Zähre; English tēar/tear; Sanskrit अश्रु ‎(áśru); Old Latin decrimare; Latin lacrima; Lithuanian ašara; Latvian asara; Welsh deigryn; Irish dér/déar; Tocharian A/B ākär/akrūna; Gothic 𐍄𐌰𐌲𐍂 ‎(tagr); Old Norse tár; Old Armenian արտաւսր ‎(artawsr); Avestan asrūazan
*déy-no- day Russian день ‎(denʹ); Irish denus/; Lithuanian diena; Latvian diena; Sanskrit दिन ‎(diná); Latin diēs; Albanian gdhin; Welsh dydd; Polish dzień; Irish día/dia; Gothic 𐍃𐌹𐌽𐍄𐌴𐌹𐌽𐍃 ‎(sinteins); Old Prussian deinan; English lencten/lent; German lenzo/Lenz; Old Church Slavonic дьнь ‎(dĭnĭ)
*deyw-ó- god; i.e. 'shining' Sanskrit देव ‎(devá); Avestan daēva; Latin deus; Lithuanian dievas; Latvian dievs; Old Prussian deiws; Oscan diúveí; Umbrian di; Gaulish Dēvona; Welsh duw; Old Irish día; Irish dia; Ancient Greek Ζεύς ‎(Zeús); Phrygian tios; Russian диво ‎(divo); Polish dziw; Kamviri di; English Tiw/Tuesday; German Ziu/—; Old Norse Týr; Gothic Tyz; Lycian ziw; Luwian tiwat-; Lydian Divi-; Palaic tiyaz; Old Armenian տիւ ‎(tiw); Old Church Slavonic дивъ ‎(divŭ)
*déḱm̥t ten Old Armenian տասն ‎(tasn); Albanian dhjetë/dhetë; Lithuanian dešimt; Latvian desmit; Gaulish decam; German zēhen/zehn; Dacian dece-; English tīen/ten; Ancient Greek δέκα ‎(déka); Avestan dasa; Irish deich/deich; Kashmiri da.h; Kamviri duc; Latin decem; Oscan 𐌃𐌄𐌊𐌄𐌍 ‎(deken); Old Norse tíu; Old Prussian desīmtan; Ossetian дæс ‎(dæs); Persian daθa/ده ‎(dah); Old Church Slavonic дєсѧть ‎(desętĭ); Polish dziesięć; Russian десять ‎(desjatʹ); Sanskrit दश ‎(dáśa); Tocharian A/B śäk/śak; Umbrian 𐌃𐌄𐌔𐌄𐌌 ‎(desem); Gothic 𐍄𐌰𐌹𐌷𐌿𐌽 ‎(taihun); Welsh deg
*dóru tree Old Armenian ծառ ‎(caṙ); Lithuanian derva; Latvian dreve; Gaulish Dervus; Russian де́рево ‎(dérevo); English trēow/tree; Hittite taru; Luwian tarweja-; Ancient Greek δρῦς ‎(drûs); Albanian dru/drû; Irish dair/dair; Tocharian A/B or; Kamviri dâa; Persian / دار ‎(dār) درخت (derakht); Polish drzewo; Welsh derwen; Sanskrit दारु ‎(dā́ru); Avestan dāuru; Gothic 𐍄𐍂𐌹𐌿 ‎(triu); Old Norse tré; Old Prussian drawine; Old Church Slavonic дрѣво ‎(drěvo); Ancient Macedonian darullos