Appendix:List of Proto-Indo-European roots/h₁

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Root Meaning Derivatives
*h₁ed- to eat Lith. ėsti, Ltv. ēst, Old Prussian ist, Russ. есть ‎(jestʹ), Polish jeść, Skr. अत्ति ‎(átti), Av. [script needed] ‎(ad), Arm. ուտեմ ‎(utem), Hitt. 𒂊𒀉𒈪 ‎(eidmi), Luw. [script needed] ‎(ad-); [script needed] ‎(az-), Palaic [script needed] ‎(ata-), Lat. edō, Oscan edum, Gk. ἔδω ‎(édō), Eng. etan/eat, Gm. essan/essen, ON eta, Goth. 𐌹𐍄𐌰𐌽 ‎(itan), Ir. esse/, Thrac. [script needed] ‎(esko-), Toch. /yesti, OCS ꙗсти ‎(jasti)
*h₁edʰ- sharp Russ. ель ‎(jelʹ), Lith. eglė, Ltv. egle, Lat. ebulus, Gaul. odocos, Ir. aidlen/ailim, Old Prussian addle, Eng. ellærn/elder (tree), Gm. attuh/, Polish jodła, Gk. ἐλάτη ‎(elátē)
*h₁engʷ- gland Alb. angërr, Gk. ἀδήν ‎(adḗn), Lat. inguen, ON ǫkkvinn
*h₁es- to be OCS єстъ ‎(estŭ), Russ. есть ‎(jestʹ), Lith. esmi, Ltv. esmu, Old Prussian asmai, Gk. ἐστί ‎(estí), Ir. am/, Skr. अस्ति ‎(ásti), Av. [script needed] ‎(asti), Lat. esse, Umbrian sent, Oscan súm, Eng. is/is, Arm. եմ ‎(em), Polish jest, Serb. biti, Alb. është/âsht, Gm. ist/ist, Goth. 𐌹𐍃𐍄 ‎(ist), ON es, Hitt. 𒂊𒌍𒍣 ‎(ēszi), Lyc. [script needed] ‎(es), Luw. [script needed] ‎(as), Lyd. [script needed] ‎(e-), Palaic [script needed] ‎(aš-), Toch. ṣe/ṣei, Pers. 𐎠𐎿𐎫𐎡𐎹 ‎(astiy)/است ‎(ast)
*h₁er- goat Arm. որոճ ‎(oroč), Lith. ėriukas, Ltv. jērs, Old Prussian eristian, Lat. ariēs, Umbrian erietu, Ir. heirp/earb, Gk. ἔριφος ‎(ériphos), Gm. irah/, OCS [script needed] ‎(jarici)
*h₁ew- to dress Av. [script needed] ‎(aoθra); Russ. обу́ть ‎(obútʹ); Polish obuć; Lith. aũti; Ltv. àut; Lat. exuō, induō, subūcula; Arm. ագանիմ ‎(aganim); Old Prussian auclo; Umbrian anovihimu; Ir. fúan/; Welsh gŵn; OCS обути ‎(obuti); [script needed] ‎(izuti); Alb. mbath; Toch. /ewe
*h₁ews- to burn Alb. ushël, Lith. usnis, Ltv. usna, Lat. ūrō, Gk. εὕω ‎(heúō), Gm. eimuria/, Eng. ǣmerge/ember, ON usli, Skr. ओषति ‎(oṣati)
*h₁ey- to go Skr. एति ‎(éti), Av. [script needed] ‎(aēiti), Gk. εἶμι ‎(eîmi), Lat. , Umbrian ier, Oscan eítuns, Kamviri [script needed] ‎(ie), Gaul. eimu, Toch. i/i, Ir. ethaim/, Pers. 𐎠𐎡𐎫𐎡𐎹 ‎(aitiy) /, OCS ити ‎(iti), Luw. 𒄿𒄿 ‎(iti), Goth. 𐌹𐌳𐌳𐌾𐌰 ‎(iddja), Eng. ēode/--, Lith. eiti, Ltv. iet, Old Prussian eit, Russ. идти́ ‎(idtí), Polish iść, Alb. ik
*h₁lengʷʰ- lightweight Alb. lehtë, Av. [script needed] ‎(ragu), Eng. lēoht/light, Gm. līht/leicht, Goth. [script needed] ‎(līhts), Gk. ἐλαχύς ‎(elakhús), Ir. laigiu/, Kashmiri [script needed] ‎(lo.t), Lat. levis, Ltv. liegs, Lith. leñgva, OCS [script needed] ‎(lĭgŭkŭ), Old Prussian lāngiseilingins, ON lēttr, Polish lekki, Russ. лёгкий ‎(ljóxkij), Skr. लघु ‎(laghu), Toch. /lankŭtse, Welsh llaw
*h₁lewdʰ- people Eng. lēod/lede; Gm. liuti/Leute; ON ljóðr; Ltv. ļaudis; Russ. лю́ди ‎(ljúdi)
*h₁wegʷʰ- to praise Skr. वाघत् ‎(vāghat), Av. [script needed] ‎(raštarəvaġənti), Gk. εὔχομαι ‎(eúkhomai), Arm. գոգեմ ‎(gogem), Lat. vovēre, Umbrian vufetes
*h₁rebʰ- to roof Gk. ἐρέφω ‎(eréphō), OCS рєбро ‎(rebro), Russ. ребро́ ‎(rebró), Eng. ribb/rib, ON rif, Gm. ribba/Rippe, Polish żebro
*h₁rep- to snatch Lat. rapere, Gk. ἐρέπτομαι ‎(eréptomai), ἁρπάζω ‎(harpázō); Lith. ap-répti; Eng. reopan/reap; Gm. /reifsen; Alb. rjep
*h₁rewdʰ- red Lat. ruber; Eng. rēad/red; Lith. raudonas; Ltv. ruds; Skr. रुधिर ‎(rudhira); Russ. рдеть ‎(rdetʹ); Gk. ἐρυθρός ‎(eruthrós); Toch. rtär/ratre; Av. [script needed] ‎(raoðita); Goth. [script needed] ‎(rauþs); ON rauðr, rjóðr; Gm. rōt/rot; Oscan Rufriis; Umbrian rufru; Ir. rúad/rua; Welsh rhudd; Gaul. Roudos
*h₁rewg- to vomit Russ. рыга́ть ‎(rygátʹ); Polish rzygać; Lith. riaugėti; Ltv. raugāties; Gk. ἐρεύγομαι ‎(ereúgomai); Lat. ructāre; Eng. rēocan/reek; Gm. rouhhan/rauchen, itruchen/; ON reykja; Pers. /[script needed] ‎(āroġ); Arm. ործամ ‎(orcam)