Appendix:List of Proto-Indo-European roots/h₂

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Root Meaning Derivatives
*h₂eǵʰ- plough animal Old Armenian եզն ‎(ezn); Old Irish ag/Irish agh; Welsh ael, Welsh eilion; Sanskrit अही ‎(ahī); Avestan [script needed] ‎(azī)
*h₂eḱ- sharp ἄκρος ‎(ákros); Latin ācer; Sanskrit अश्रि ‎(aśri); остръ ‎(ostrŭ); Russian ость ‎(ostʹ), Russian острый ‎(ostryj); Old Irish aicher; Lithuanian aštrus; Latvian asmens; Gothic 𐌰𐌷𐍃 ‎(ahs); Persian [script needed] ‎(ās); Gaulish Akrotalus; Welsh eithiw; Oscan akrid; Umbrian peracri; Old Armenian ասեղն ‎(asełn); Albanian athët; Tocharian A āk/Tocharian B āke; Old English ecg/English edge; Old Norse egg; Old High German egga/German Ecke; Polish ostry; Ancient Macedonian [script needed] ‎(akrounoi)
*h₂en- ancestor ἀννίς ‎(annís); Latin anus, Latin anna; ana; ano/Ahn; Lithuanian anyta; Hittite [script needed] ‎(hannas); Old Armenian հան ‎(han); Russian внук ‎(vnuk); Old Prussian ane; Old Irish Ana
*h₂enǵʰ- narrow ἄγχω ‎(ánkhō)/; Sanskrit अंहु ‎(aṃhu); Avestan [script needed] ‎(ązaṅhē); Russian узкий ‎(uzkij); Gothic 𐌰𐌲𐌲𐍅𐌿𐍃 ‎(aggwus); Old Norse aungr; Old Armenian անձուկ ‎(anjuk); Old High German engi/German eng; Hittite [script needed] ‎(hamenk); Old Church Slavonic ѫзъкъ ‎(ǫzŭkŭ); Polish wąski; Lithuanian ankšta; Tocharian A eṁts/Tocharian B entse; Old English enge/; Welsh yng; Old Irish cumung/Irish cung; Latin angor, Latin angere; Albanian ang
*h₂enh₁- breathe Sanskrit अन ‎(ana); Gothic 𐌿𐌶𐌰𐌽𐌰𐌽 ‎(uzanan), Gothic 𐌰𐌽𐌳𐌹 ‎(andi); Old Irish animm, Old Irish anál; ἄνεμος ‎(ánemos); Latin animus, Latin anima; Old Church Slavonic вонꙗти ‎(vonjati); Russian вонь ‎(vonʹ); Welsh anysbryd; Old Norse anda, Old Norse ǫnd; Old English eðian, Old English ōþian; Welsh eneid; Avestan [script needed] ‎(åntya); Lithuanian anuoti; Old Armenian անձն ‎(anjn), Old Armenian հողմ ‎(hołm); Albanian ëj/Gheg Albanian âj; Oscan anamum; Tocharian A āñcäm/Tocharian B āñme
*h₂enk- angle Old High German ango; Ossetian æнгуыр ‎(æng°yr); Sanskrit अङ्क ‎(áṅka); Latin ancus; Lithuanian anka; Latvian āķis; Old Armenian անկիւն ‎(ankiwn); ὄγκος ‎(ónkos), ἄγκος ‎(ánkos); Russian угол ‎(ugol); Old Norse angi; Avestan [script needed] ‎(aṅkupəsəmna); Welsh angad, Welsh crafanc; Old Irish écath; Hittite [script needed] ‎(hink)
*h₂ep- (body of) water Old English ōfer/, Old English fisc/English fish; /German Ufer, Old High German fisc/German Fisch; Gothic 𐍆𐌹𐍃𐌺𐍃 ‎(fisks); Old Norse fiskr; Latin amnis, Latin piscis; 𒄩𒉺𒀀 ‎(ḫapaa); Palaic [script needed] ‎(ḫapnas); 𒄩𒀀𒁉𒅖 ‎(ḫāpis); Russian пескарь ‎(peskarʹ); Polish piskorz; Latvian upe; Lithuanian upė; Old Prussian ape; Sanskrit अप् ‎(áp); Sanskrit अफ ‎(apha); Avestan [script needed] ‎(afš); Tocharian A āp/Tocharian B āp 𐎠𐎱𐎡𐎹𐎠 ‎(apiyā)/آب ‎(āb)
*h₂ep- to reach Avestan apayeiti ‎(apayeiti); Latin apex; Sanskrit आप्त ‎(āpta); Ancient Greek ἅπτω ‎(háptō); Old Armenian ունիմ ‎(unim); Hittite [script needed] ‎(apanzi); Tocharian A oppäśśi; Polish opaść
*h₂er- nut Lithuanian ruošutỹs; Russian орех ‎(orex); Albanian arrë; Ancient Greek ἄρυα ‎(árua); Polish orzech; Hittite [script needed] ‎(harau)
*h₂erh₃- to plow Tocharian A āre/Tocharian B āre; {{cog|la|arō; aratrum; Ancient Greek ἀροτήρ ‎(arotḗr); Lithuanian arti, ārklas; Latvian art; Old Church Slavonic орати ‎(orati); Russian орать ‎(oratʹ); արաւր ‎(arawr); Polish orać; Gothic 𐌰𐍂𐌾𐌰𐌽 ‎(arjan); Old English erian; Old Norse arðr, Welsh arddu, aradr; Old Irish airim, arathar; Old Prussian artoys; Old High German erien
*h₂erk- to lock Ancient Greek ἀρκέω ‎(arkéō); Latin arcēre; Old Armenian արգել ‎(argel); Gothic 𐌰𐍂𐌺𐌰 ‎(arka); Old Prussian arkan; Polish arkan; Hittite [script needed] ‎(ḫark-); Tocharian B ārk; Oscan [script needed] ‎(trííbarakavúm); Lithuanian raktas, užrakinti
*h₂ew- to help Sanskrit अवति ‎(ávati); Latin aveō, avārus; Avestan [script needed] ‎(avaiti); Old Armenian աւիւն ‎(awiwn); Gaulish Avicantus; Ancient Greek -αονες ‎(-aones)?; Lithuanian aušti; Latvian aust; Old Irish con·oí; Tocharian A olar/Tocharian B aulāre; Old Norse auð; Old English īþe; Old High German ōdmuoti; Welsh ewyllys, adaw
*h₂ewg- to glance Ancient Greek αὐγή ‎(augḗ); Albanian ag, agoj; Russian юг ‎(jug); Old Church Slavonic югъ ‎(jugŭ)
*h₂ewg- to increase Lithuanian augti; Latvian augt; Latin auctis; Ancient Greek αὐξάνω ‎(auxánō); Sanskrit उग्र ‎(ugra); Tocharian A ok/Tocharian B auk; Old English eacan/English eke, Old English weaxan/English wax; Old High German ouh/German auch, Old High German wahsan/German wachsen; Old Norse auka, vaxa; Gothic 𐌰𐌿𐌺𐌰𐌽 ‎(aukan), 𐍅𐌰𐌷𐍃𐌾𐌰𐌽 ‎(wahsjan); Old Prussian auginnons; Umbrian [script needed] ‎(uhtur)
*h₂ews- dawn Latin ver, Aurōra; Lithuanian aušra; Latvian ausma; Old High German ōstra/German Osten; Sanskrit उषस् ‎(uṣas); Russian утро ‎(utro); Old English ēast/English east; Ancient Greek ἠώς ‎(ēṓs), ᾱ̓ήρ ‎(āḗr), αὔριον ‎(aúrion); Old Norse austr; Avestan [script needed] ‎(ušastara); Irish fáir; Welsh gwawr; Albanian err
*h₂ey- vital force Sanskrit आयु ‎(āyu); Latin aevum; Old Irish áes/Irish aois; Avestan [script needed] ‎(āyū); Tocharian A āym; Old English æfre/English ever; Old High German īo/German je, Old High German êwig/German ewig; Gothic 𐌰𐌹𐍅𐍃 ‎(aiws); Old Norse ei; Ancient Greek αἰών ‎(aiṓn); Albanian eshë
*h₂eyg- sick Latin aeger; Tocharian A ekroill/Tocharian B aikare; Old Norse eikenn, eikja/eikla; Lithuanian ingas; Latvian angus; Old Church Slavonic ѩса ‎(jęsa); Russian яга ‎(jaga); Polish jędza; Old English ācol; Albanian kë-ëk
*h₂eyǵ- goat Sanskrit एड ‎(eḍa); Avestan [script needed] ‎(izaēna); Old Persian [script needed] ‎(azg); Old Armenian այծ ‎(ayc); Ancient Greek αἴξ ‎(aíx); Albanian edh; Lithuanian ožỹs; Latvian āzis
*h₂eyǵ- oak Lithuanian ąžuolas; Latin aesculus; Ancient Greek αἰγίλωψ ‎(aigílōps), κράταιγος ‎(krátaigos); Old Norse eik; Old English āc/English oak; Old High German eihha/German Eiche; Middle Irish áesc; Albanian enjë
*h₂eyḱ- spear/pike Ancient Greek αἶκλοι ‎(aîkloi)?; Latin īcō; Old Prussian aysmis; Old Church Slavonic игла ‎(igla); Polish igła; Avestan [script needed] ‎(išarə); Lithuanian iešmas; Latvian iesms; Old Norse eigin; Russian игла ‎(igla)
*h₂eyḱ- to be master of; to possess Old English āgan/English ought; Gothic 𐌰𐌹𐌲𐌰𐌽 ‎(aigan); Old High German eigan/German eigen; Old Norse eiga; Sanskrit ईष्टे ‎(īṣṭe); Avestan [script needed] ‎(īšti)
*h₂eym- copy Hittite [script needed] ‎(ḫimma); Latin aemulus, imāgō, reimere, geminus; Middle Irish emon; Albanian gjysmë; Lithuanian jumis; Sanskrit यम ‎(yamá); Avestan [script needed] ‎(yima)
*h₂melǵ- to milk Latin mulgeō; Old English melcan/English milk; Old High German melcan/German melken; Gothic 𐌼𐌹𐌻𐌿𐌺𐍃 ‎(miluks); Old Norse mjǫlk; Tocharian A malke/Tocharian B malkwer; Ancient Greek ἀμέλγω ‎(amélgō); Old Irish melg, bligim; Welsh blith; Lithuanian melžti; Russian молозиво ‎(molozivo); Sanskrit मर्जति ‎(marjati); Albanian mjel
*h₂wap- bad; evil Hittite [script needed] ‎(ḫuwapp); Old English yfel/English evil; Old High German ubil/German Übel; Gothic 𐌿𐌱𐌹𐌻𐍃 ‎(ubils)
*h₂weh₁- to blow Old English weder/English weather, wind, Old English wāwan, Old High German waian/German wehen, Wind; Old Norse vindr; Latin ventus; Sanskrit वाति ‎(vā́ti); Ancient Greek ἄημι ‎(áēmi), ᾱ̓τμός ‎(ātmós); Avestan [script needed] ‎(vāiti); Hittite [script needed] ‎(ḫuwantiš); Lithuanian vėjas; Latvian vējš; Old Prussian wins; Tocharian A want/Tocharian B yente; Old Church Slavonic вѣтръ ‎(větrŭ); Russian ве́ять ‎(véjatʹ); Polish wiać; Welsh gwynt; Old Irish feth