Appendix:List of Proto-Indo-European roots/h₂

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Root Meaning Derivatives
*h₂eǵʰ- plough animal Old Armenian եզն (ezn); Old Irish ag/Irish agh; Welsh ael, Welsh eilion; Sanskrit अही (ahī); Avestan 𐬀𐬰𐬍 (azī)
*h₂eḱ- sharp ἄκρος (ákros); Latin ācer; Sanskrit अश्रि (aśri); остръ (ostrŭ); Russian ость (ostʹ), Russian острый (ostryj); Old Irish aicher; Lithuanian aštrus; Latvian asmens; Gothic 𐌰𐌷𐍃 (ahs); Persian [script needed] (ās); Gaulish Akrotalus; Welsh eithiw; Oscan akrid; Umbrian peracri; Old Armenian ասեղն (asełn); Albanian athët; Tocharian A āk/Tocharian B āke; Old English ecg/English edge; Old Norse egg; Old High German egga/German Ecke; Polish ostry; Ancient Macedonian [script needed] (akrounoi)
*h₂en- ancestor ἀννίς (annís); Latin anus, Latin anna; ana; ano/Ahn; Lithuanian anyta; Hittite [script needed] (hannas); Old Armenian հան (han); Russian внук (vnuk); Old Prussian ane; Old Irish Ana
*h₂enǵʰ- narrow ἄγχω (ánkhō)/; Sanskrit अंहु (aṃhu); Avestan 𐬄𐬰𐬀𐬢𐬵𐬉 (ązaŋhē); Russian узкий (uzkij); Gothic 𐌰𐌲𐌲𐍅𐌿𐍃 (aggwus); Old Norse aungr; Old Armenian անձուկ (anjuk); Old High German engi/German eng; Hittite [script needed] (hamenk); Old Church Slavonic ѫзъкъ (ǫzŭkŭ); Polish wąski; Lithuanian ankšta; Tocharian A eṁts/Tocharian B entse; Old English enge/; Welsh yng; Old Irish cumung/Irish cung; Latin angor, Latin angere; Albanian ang
*h₂enh₁- breathe Sanskrit अन (ana); Gothic 𐌿𐌶𐌰𐌽𐌰𐌽 (uzanan), Gothic 𐌰𐌽𐌳𐌹 (andi); Old Irish animm, Old Irish anál; ἄνεμος (ánemos); Latin animus, Latin anima; Old Church Slavonic вонꙗти (vonjati); Russian вонь (vonʹ); Welsh anysbryd; Old Norse anda, Old Norse ǫnd; Old English eþian, Old English ōþian; Welsh eneid; Avestan 𐬂𐬥𐬙𐬌𐬌𐬀 (åntiia); Lithuanian anuoti; Old Armenian անձն (anjn), Old Armenian հողմ (hołm); Albanian ëj/Gheg Albanian âj; Oscan anamum; Tocharian A āñcäm/Tocharian B āñme
*h₂enk- angle Old High German ango; Ossetian æнгуыр (æng°yr); Sanskrit अङ्क (áṅka); Latin ancus; Lithuanian anka; Latvian āķis; Old Armenian անկիւն (ankiwn); ὄγκος (ónkos), ἄγκος (ánkos); Russian угол (ugol); Old Norse angi; Avestan 𐬀𐬢𐬐𐬎𐬞𐬆𐬯𐬆𐬨𐬥𐬀 (aŋkupəsəmna); Welsh angad, Welsh crafanc; Old Irish écath; Hittite [script needed] (hink)
*h₂ep- (body of) water Old English ōfer/, Old English fisc/English fish; /German Ufer, Old High German fisc/German Fisch; Gothic 𐍆𐌹𐍃𐌺𐍃 (fisks); Old Norse fiskr; Latin amnis, Latin piscis; 𒄩𒉺𒀀 (ḫapaa); Palaic [script needed] (ḫapnas); 𒄩𒀀𒁉𒅖 (ḫāpis); Russian пескарь (peskarʹ); Polish piskorz; Latvian upe; Lithuanian upė; Old Prussian ape; Sanskrit अप् (áp); Sanskrit अफ (apha); Avestan 𐬀𐬟𐬱 (afš); Tocharian A āp/Tocharian B āp 𐎠𐎱𐎡𐎹𐎠 (apiyā)/آب (āb)
*h₂ep- to reach Avestan 𐬀𐬞𐬀𐬌𐬌𐬈𐬌𐬙𐬌 (apaiieiti); Latin apex; Sanskrit आप्त (āpta); Ancient Greek ἅπτω (háptō); Old Armenian ունիմ (unim); Hittite [script needed] (apanzi); Tocharian A oppäśśi; Polish opaść
*h₂er- nut Lithuanian ruošutỹs; Russian орех (orex); Albanian arrë; Ancient Greek ἄρυα (árua); Polish orzech; Hittite [script needed] (harau)
*h₂erh₃- to plow Tocharian A āre/Tocharian B āre; {{cog|la|arō; aratrum; Ancient Greek ἀροτήρ (arotḗr); Lithuanian arti, ārklas; Latvian art; Old Church Slavonic орати (orati); Russian орать (oratʹ); արաւր (arawr); Polish orać; Gothic 𐌰𐍂𐌾𐌰𐌽 (arjan); Old English erian; Old Norse arðr, Welsh aredig, aradr; Old Irish airim, arathar; Old Prussian artoys; Old High German erien
*h₂erk- to lock Ancient Greek ἀρκέω (arkéō); Latin arcēre; Old Armenian արգել (argel); Gothic 𐌰𐍂𐌺𐌰 (arka); Old Prussian arkan; Polish arkan; Hittite [script needed] (ḫark-); Tocharian B ārk; Oscan [script needed] (trííbarakavúm); Lithuanian raktas, užrakinti
*h₂ew- to help Sanskrit अवति (ávati); Latin aveō, avārus; Avestan 𐬀𐬎𐬎𐬀𐬌𐬙𐬌 (auuaiti); Old Armenian աւիւն (awiwn); Gaulish Avicantus; Ancient Greek -αονες (-aones)?; Lithuanian aušti; Latvian aust; Old Irish con·oí; Tocharian A olar/Tocharian B aulāre; Old Norse auð; Old English īþe; Old High German ōdmuoti; Welsh ewyllys, adaw
*h₂ewg- to glance Ancient Greek αὐγή (augḗ); Albanian ag, agoj; Russian юг (jug); Old Church Slavonic югъ (jugŭ)
*h₂ewg- to increase Lithuanian augti; Latvian augt; Latin auctis; Ancient Greek αὐξάνω (auxánō); Sanskrit उग्र (ugra); Tocharian A ok/Tocharian B auk; Old English eacan/English eke, Old English weaxan/English wax; Old High German ouh/German auch, Old High German wahsan/German wachsen; Old Norse auka, vaxa; Gothic 𐌰𐌿𐌺𐌰𐌽 (aukan), 𐍅𐌰𐌷𐍃𐌾𐌰𐌽 (wahsjan); Old Prussian auginnons; Umbrian [script needed] (uhtur)
*h₂ews- dawn Latin ver, Aurōra; Lithuanian aušra; Latvian ausma; Old High German ōstra/German Osten; Sanskrit उषस् (uṣas); Russian утро (utro); Old English ēast/English east; Ancient Greek ἠώς (ēṓs), ᾱ̓ήρ (āḗr), αὔριον (aúrion); Old Norse austr; Avestan 𐬎𐬱𐬀𐬯𐬙𐬀𐬭𐬀 (ušastara); Irish fáir; Welsh gwawr; Albanian err
*h₂ey- vital force Sanskrit आयु (āyu); Latin aevum; Old Irish áes/Irish aois; Avestan 𐬁𐬌𐬌𐬏 (āiiū); Tocharian A āym; Old English æfre/English ever; Old High German īo/German je, Old High German êwig/German ewig; Gothic 𐌰𐌹𐍅𐍃 (aiws); Old Norse ei; Ancient Greek αἰών (aiṓn); Albanian eshë
*h₂eyg- sick Latin aeger; Tocharian A ekroill/Tocharian B aikare; Old Norse eikenn, eikja/eikla; Lithuanian ingas; Latvian angus; Old Church Slavonic ѩса (jęsa); Russian яга (jaga); Polish jędza; Old English ācol; Albanian kë-ëk
*h₂eyǵ- goat Sanskrit एड (eḍa); Avestan 𐬌𐬰𐬀𐬉𐬥𐬀 (izaēna); Old Persian [script needed] (azg); Old Armenian այծ (ayc); Ancient Greek αἴξ (aíx); Albanian edh; Lithuanian ožỹs; Latvian āzis
*h₂eyǵ- oak Lithuanian ąžuolas; Latin aesculus; Ancient Greek αἰγίλωψ (aigílōps), κράταιγος (krátaigos); Old Norse eik; Old English āc/English oak; Old High German eihha/German Eiche; Middle Irish áesc; Albanian enjë
*h₂eyḱ- spear/pike Ancient Greek αἶκλοι (aîkloi)?; Latin īcō; Old Prussian aysmis; Old Church Slavonic игла (igla); Polish igła; Avestan 𐬌𐬱𐬀𐬭𐬆 (išarə); Lithuanian iešmas; Latvian iesms; Old Norse eigin; Russian игла (igla)
*h₂eyḱ- to be master of; to possess Old English āgan/English ought; Gothic 𐌰𐌹𐌲𐌰𐌽 (aigan); Old High German eigan/German eigen; Old Norse eiga; Sanskrit ईष्टे (īṣṭe); Avestan 𐬍𐬱𐬙𐬌 (īšti)
*h₂eym- copy Hittite [script needed] (ḫimma); Latin aemulus, imāgō, reimere, geminus; Middle Irish emon; Albanian gjysmë; Lithuanian jumis; Sanskrit यम (yamá); Avestan 𐬫𐬌𐬨𐬀 (yima)
*h₂melǵ- to milk Latin mulgeō; Old English melcan/English milk; Old High German melcan/German melken; Gothic 𐌼𐌹𐌻𐌿𐌺𐍃 (miluks); Old Norse mjǫlk; Tocharian A malke/Tocharian B malkwer; Ancient Greek ἀμέλγω (amélgō); Old Irish melg, bligim; Welsh blith; Lithuanian melžti; Russian молозиво (molozivo); Sanskrit मर्जति (marjati); Albanian mjel
*h₂wap- bad; evil Hittite [script needed] (ḫuwapp); Old English yfel/English evil; Old High German ubil/German Übel; Gothic 𐌿𐌱𐌹𐌻𐍃 (ubils)
*h₂weh₁- to blow Old English weder/English weather, wind, Old English wāwan, Old High German waian/German wehen, Wind; Old Norse vindr; Latin ventus; Sanskrit वाति (vā́ti); Ancient Greek ἄημι (áēmi), ᾱ̓τμός (ātmós); Avestan 𐬬𐬁𐬌𐬙𐬌 (vāiti); Hittite [script needed] (ḫuwantiš); Lithuanian vėjas; Latvian vējš; Old Prussian wins; Tocharian A want/Tocharian B yente; Old Church Slavonic вѣтръ (větrŭ); Russian ве́ять (véjatʹ); Polish wiać; Welsh gwynt; Old Irish feth