Appendix:List of Proto-Indo-European roots/kʷ

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Root Meaning Derivatives
*-kʷe enclitic "and" Latin -que; Gothic -𐌿𐌷 ‎(-uh); Ancient Greek τε ‎(te); Sanskrit ‎(ca); Lycian [script needed] ‎(-ke); Luwian [script needed] ‎(-ku); Albanian se; Breton -ge
*kʷel-
*kʷékʷlo- *kʷol-o-
to turn
wheel
Ancient Greek πόλος ‎(pólos), πέλομαι ‎(pélomai), πέλω ‎(pélō), κύκλος ‎(kúklos); Latin colō; Tocharian A kukäl; Tocharian B kokale; Sanskrit चक्र ‎(cakrá); Russian колесо́ ‎(kolesó); Old English hwēol; English wheel; Old Persian [script needed] ‎(čarka); Persian چرخ ‎(čarx); Old Irish cul, búachaill; Old Prussian kelan; Ossetian цалх ‎(calx); Polish koło; Avestan [script needed] ‎(čaxra), [script needed] ‎(čaraiti); Albanian sjell; Old Norse hjól, hvel; Lithuanian kẽlias, kãklas; Luwian [script needed] ‎(kaluti-); Welsh ymochel, dymchwel, bochel
*kʷeyH- quiet Latin quiēs; Old Norse hvíla; Old English hwil; English while; Old High German hwila; German Weile; Gothic 𐍈𐌴𐌹𐌻𐌰 ‎(ƕeila); Old Church Slavonic почити ‎(počiti); Russian почить ‎(počitʹ); Sanskrit चिरम् ‎(ciram); Avestan [script needed] ‎(šāitiš); Old Persian [script needed] ‎(šiyātiš); Persian شاه ‎(šāh); Lycian [script needed] ‎(tezi); Tocharian B śāte; Polish odpoczywać; Old Armenian հանգչիմ ‎(hangčʿim); Lithuanian tylus
*kʷetwóres four Latin quattuor; Old Armenian չորք ‎(čʿorkʿ); Albanian katër; Lithuanian keturì; Latvian četri; Gaulish petor; Old High German feor; German vier; Old English fēower; English four; Ancient Greek τέσσαρες ‎(téssares); Avestan [script needed] ‎(čaθwar); Old Irish cethir; Irish ceathair; Kashmiri [script needed] ‎(tsor); Kamviri [script needed] ‎(što); Oscan 𐌐𐌄𐌕𐌖𐌓𐌀 ‎(petora); Old Norse fjórir; Old Prussian keturjāi; Ossetian цыппа́р ‎(cyppár), цуппар ‎(cuppar); Old Persian [script needed] ‎(čahār); Old Church Slavonic чєтꙑрє ‎(četyre); Polish cztery; Russian четы́ре ‎(četýre); Sanskrit चतुर् ‎(catur); Tocharian A śtwar; Tocharian B śtwer; Thracian [script needed] ‎(ketri-); Umbrian 𐌐𐌄𐌕𐌖𐌓 ‎(petor); Gothic 𐍆𐌹𐌳𐍅𐍉𐍂 ‎(fidwōr); Welsh pedwar; Breton pevar; Lycian [script needed] ‎(teteri); Kurdish čwar
*kʷreyh₂- to buy Sanskrit क्रीणाति ‎(krīṇā́ti); Lithuanian kraitis; Latvian kriens; Old Irish crenaid; Russian кренуть ‎(krenutʹ); Tocharian A kuryar; Tocharian B kärys; Ancient Greek ἐπριάμην ‎(epriámēn); Welsh prynu
*kʷrép-o- / *kʷr̥p-eh₂- body Latin corpus; Sanskrit कृपा ‎(kṛpā); Avestan [script needed] ‎(kərəfš); Albanian krep, shkrep, kërme; Old High German href; Old English hrif; English midriff; Ancient Greek πραπίς ‎(prapís); Middle Irish crí; Welsh praff; Russian круп ‎(krup)
*kʷr̥-mi- grub Sanskrit कृमि ‎(kṛ́mi); Lithuanian kirmìs, kirmėlė; Latvian cērme; Albanian krimb, krymb; Old Irish cruim; Irish cruimh; Old Church Slavonic чрьвь ‎(črĭvĭ), чръмьнъ ‎(črŭmĭnŭ); Russian червь ‎(červʹ); Slovene čřn; Welsh pryf; Ossetian калм ‎(kalm); Old Persian [script needed] ‎(kirm); Old Prussian girmis