Appendix:List of Proto-Indo-European roots/p

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Root Meaning Derivatives
*peg- breast Sanskrit पक्ष ‎(pakṣá), Latin pectus, Latvian paksis, Russian пах ‎(pax), Tocharian A päśśäṃ, Tocharian B päścane, Old Irish ucht
*peh₂- to protect Sanskrit पाति ‎(pā́ti), पातृ ‎(pātṛ́); Tocharian A pās; Tocharian B pāsk; Ancient Greek πῶυ ‎(pôu), πῶμα ‎(pôma), ποιμήν ‎(poimḗn); Latin pāstum; Old High German fōtar; German Futter; Old English fōdor, English fodder, Lithuanian piemuõ; Gothic 𐍆𐍉𐌳𐌾𐌰𐌽 ‎(fōdjan), 𐍆𐍉𐌳𐍂 ‎(fōdr); Avestan [script needed] ‎(pāiti); Old Persian 𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎱𐎠𐎺𐎠 ‎(xšaçapāvā); Persian پاییدن ‎(pāyīdan); Old Norse fǿða, fóðr; Old Armenian հաւրան ‎(hawran)
*péh₂ur bonfire Hittite 𒉺𒀪𒄯 ‎(paḫḫur), Tocharian A por, Tocharian B pūwar, Ancient Greek πῦρ ‎(pûr), Umbrian [script needed] ‎(pir), Old Norse fúrr, Old English fȳr, English fire, Czech pyr, Armenian հուր ‎(hur), Old High German fiur, German Feuer, Old Prussian panno, Oscan purasiai, Gothic 𐍆𐍉𐌽 ‎(fōn)
*peh₃y- to drink Russian пить ‎(pitʹ), Sanskrit पिबति ‎(píbati), Ancient Greek πίνω ‎(pínō), Albanian pi, Old Irish ibid, Welsh yfed, Lithuanian puota, Old Prussian poieiti, Hittite [script needed] ‎(pas), Thracian [script needed] ‎(pinon), Old Armenian ըմպեմ ‎(əmpem), Latin bibō, Umbrian [script needed] ‎(puni), Old Church Slavonic: пити ‎(piti), Polish pić
*peḱ- to pluck *peḱu- ‎(cattle); Ancient Greek πόκος ‎(pókos), πέκω ‎(pékō); Latin pecu, pecus; Lithuanian pekus; Old Prussian pecku; Sanskrit पशु ‎(páśu); Kurdish pas; Avestan [script needed] ‎(pasu); Gothic 𐍆𐌰𐌹𐌷𐌿 ‎(faihu); Old English feoh; English fee; Old Norse ; Old High Germah fihu; German Vieh; Old Armenian ասր ‎(asr)
*pekʷ- to cook, become ripe Latin coquō, Albanian pjek, Russian печь ‎(pečʹ), Sanskrit पचति ‎(pácati), Tocharian A päk, Tocharian B päk, Welsh pobi, Ancient Greek πέσσω ‎(péssō), Kamviri [script needed] ‎(puk), Lithuanian kepti, Latvian cept, Old Church Slavonic пекѫ ‎(pekǫ), Polish piec, Persian پختن ‎(pukhtan), Old Prussian pektis, Old English āfigen
*pel- flour Old Prussian pelwo, Latin palea, Sanskrit पलाल ‎(palāla), Lithuanian pelus, Latvian pelus, Russian поло́ва ‎(polóva)
*pel- gray Albanian plak; Old Armenian ալիք ‎(alikʿ); Sanskrit पलित ‎(palitá); Avestan [script needed] ‎(pouruša); Persian [script needed] ‎(pūrū); Kurdish pêl; Ancient Macedonian [script needed] ‎(pellus); Ancient Greek πολιός ‎(poliós), πελιτνός ‎(pelitnós); Latin palleō, pullus; Irish liath; Welsh llwyd; Lithuanian pelekas; Latvian pelēks; Old Prussian pelē; Old Church Slavonic плавъ ‎(plavŭ); Russian пелёсый ‎(peljósyj); Polish płowy; Old Norse fǫlr; Old High German falo; German falb; Old English fealu; English fallow
*pel- skin Ancient Greek πέλᾰς ‎(pélas), πέλμα ‎(pélma); Latin pellis; Russian пелена́ ‎(pelená); Gothic 𐍆𐌹𐌻𐌻 ‎(fill); Old High German fël; German Fell; Old English filmen; English film, Old Norse fjall; Lithuanian palà, plėnė; Latvian plēne; Old Prussian pleynis
*pelh₂- flat Hittite [script needed] ‎(palḫiš); Old Armenian հող ‎(hoł), լայն ‎(layn); Lithuanian plónas, platùs; Latvian plãns, plañdît; Old Prussian plonis; Old Irish lían, lethan, lethaid; Welsh lleyn, llwyn, lledu; Old English feld; English field, flat; Old High German feld; German Feld, Ancient Greek πλᾰτύς ‎(platús), πλανάω ‎(planáō), πλάσσω ‎(plássō); Sanskrit पृथु ‎(pṛthú); Avestan [script needed] ‎(fraθah), Latin plānus, Russian пло́ский ‎(plóskij); Old Church Slavonic плоскъ ‎(ploskŭ)
*pénkʷe five Old Prussian pēnkjāi, Lithuanian penki, Latvian pieci, Gothic 𐍆𐌹𐌼𐍆 ‎(fimf), Old High German fimf, German fünf, Old English fīf, English five, Old Norse fimm, Phrygian [script needed] ‎(pinke), Ancient Greek πέντε ‎(pénte), Old Armenian հինգ ‎(hing), Avestan [script needed] ‎(paṇča), Albanian pesë (Gheg pês), Kashmiri [script needed] ‎(pā.~tsh), Kamviri [script needed] ‎(puč), Luwian [script needed] ‎(panta), Ossetian фондз ‎(fonʒ), Persian پنج ‎(panj), Old Church Slavonic пѧть ‎(pętĭ), Russian пять ‎(pjatʹ), Sanskrit पञ्चन् ‎(páñcan), Tocharian A päñ, Tocharian B piś, Latin quīnque, Oscan pompe, Umbrian 𐌐𐌖𐌌𐌐𐌄 ‎(pumpe), Welsh pump, Old Irish cóic, Irish cúig, Gaulish pempe
*pent- road Latin pōns; Ancient Greek πόντος ‎(póntos); Sanskrit पथिन् ‎(páthin); Avestan [script needed] ‎(pantå); Russian путь ‎(putʹ); Gothic 𐍆𐌹𐌽𐌸𐌰𐌽 ‎(finþan); Old English findan; English find; Old High German findan; German finden; Old Norse finna; Old Armenian հուն ‎(hun); Kamviri [script needed] ‎(put); Old Prussian pentes; Old Irish étain, áitt; Old Church Slavonic пѫть ‎(pǫtĭ); Old Persian [script needed] ‎(paθim)
*perd- to fart Russian перде́ть ‎(perdétʹ), Polish pierdzieć, Sanskrit पर्दते ‎(párdate), Lithuanian persti, Latvian pirst, Phrygian [script needed] ‎(perdomai), Albanian pjerth, pordhë, Old English feortan, English fart, Old High German ferzan, German furzen, Old Norse freta, Ancient Greek πέρδομαι ‎(pérdomai), Avestan [script needed] ‎(pərəðaiti), Welsh rhech
*perḱ- rib Lithuanian pìršys, Sanskrit पर्शु ‎(párśu), Avestan [script needed] ‎(parəsu), Ossetian фарс ‎(fars), Old Church Slavonic пръси ‎(prŭsi), Albanian parz, parzëm
*perkʷu- oak see Perkwunos. Latin quercus, Lithuanian Perkúnas, Latvian pērkons, Sanskrit पर्कटी ‎(parkaṭī), Old Norse fura, Old English furh, English fir, Old High German foraha, German Föhre, Welsh perth, Gothic 𐍆𐌰𐌹𐍂𐌲𐌿𐌽𐌹 ‎(fairguni), Albanian shpardh, shparr
*pers- dust Tocharian A pärs, Tocharian B pärs, Avestan [script needed] ‎(paršuya), Lithuanian purkšti, Latvian pārsla, Old Norse fors, Hittite [script needed] ‎(pappars), Sanskrit पृषत् ‎(pṛ́ṣat), Old Church Slavonic прахъ ‎(praxŭ), Russian прах ‎(prax)
*persn-eh₂- heel Latin perna, pernis; Sanskrit पार्ष्णि ‎(pā́rṣṇi); Hittite [script needed] ‎(parsina); Gothic 𐍆𐌰𐌹𐍂𐌶𐌽𐌰 ‎(fairzna); Old High German fërsana; German Ferse; Ancient Greek πτέρνη ‎(ptérnē); Old English fiersn; Persian پاشنا ‎(pāshnā); Lithuanian pentinas; Russian пя́тка ‎(pjátka)
*pes- penis Ancient Greek πέος ‎(péos), Latin pēnis, Old High German faselt, German Fasel, Old Norse fǫsull, Old English fæsl, Sanskrit पसस् ‎(pásas)
*peth₂- to fly Old English feþer; English feather; Old High German fedara; German Feder; Old Norse fjǫðr; Latin petō, penna, accipiter; Sanskrit पतति ‎(pátati); Hittite [script needed] ‎(pattar); Ancient Greek πτερόν ‎(pterón), πίπτω ‎(píptō), πέτομαι ‎(pétomai), ὠκῠπέτης ‎(ōkupétēs); Welsh adar, edn; Old Persian [script needed] ‎(udapatatā); Old Armenian թիռ ‎(tʿiṙ); Old Irish ette, én; Avestan [script needed] ‎(pataiti); Latvian pētīt; Albanian shpendë
*pet- to open arms Ancient Greek πετάννῡμι ‎(petánnūmi); Latin pateō, pandō; Avestan [script needed] ‎(paθana); Old Prussian pettis; Lithuanian petỹs; Old English fæðm; English fathom; Old Norse faðmr; Faroese favnur; Old High German fadam, fademōn; German Faden; Scottish Gaelic aitheamh; Welsh edau; Albanian pjetem; Hittite [script needed] ‎(pattar)
*ph₂tḗr father Latin pater; Oscan 𐌐𐌀𐌕𐌝𐌓 ‎(patír); Umbrian 𐌉𐌖𐌐𐌀𐌕𐌄𐌓 ‎(iupater); Ancient Greek πατήρ ‎(patḗr); Tocharian A pācar; Tocharian B pācer; Albanian bace; Old Armenian հայր ‎(hayr); Gaulish atir, Ateronius; Sanskrit पितृ ‎(pitṛ́); Old High German fater; German Vater; Old Irish athir; Old English fæder; English father; Welsh gwaladr, edryd, edrydd, edryf; Kashmiri [script needed] ‎(petū'r); Avestan [script needed] ‎(ptā) (dat. [script needed] ‎(fədrōi)); Old Persian 𐎱𐎡𐎫𐎠 ‎(pitā); Persian پدر ‎(pedar); Ossetian фыд ‎(fyd), [script needed] ‎(fidæ); Old Norse faðir, Gothic 𐍆𐌰𐌳𐌰𐍂 ‎(fadar)
*pisd-eh₂- vulva Russian пизда́ ‎(pizdá), Lithuanian pyzdà, Latvian pīzda, Albanian pidh, Kamviri [script needed] ‎(pəṛí), Polish pizda
*pleh₂k- to hit Latin plangō, plāga; Old English flōc, flōcan; English fluke; Ancient Greek πληγή ‎(plēgḗ), πλήσσω ‎(plḗssō); Old Church Slavonic плакати ‎(plakati); Russian пла́кать ‎(plákatʹ, to weep); Lithuanian plakti; Old Irish lén, léssaim; Albanian ploje; Gothic 𐍆𐌻𐍉𐌺𐌰𐌽 ‎(flōkan); Old Norse flókinn; Old High German fluoh; German Fluch
*pleḱ- to plait/braid Ancient Greek πλέκω ‎(plékō), πλοκή ‎(plokḗ); Latin plectō, plicō; Old Norse flétta; Gothic 𐍆𐌻𐌰𐌷𐍄𐍉 ‎(flahtō); Old High German flehtan; German flechten; Old English fleohtan, fleax; English flax; Sanskrit प्रश्न ‎(praśna); Avestan [script needed] ‎(ərəzato frašnəm); Old Church Slavonic плєсти ‎(plesti); Russian плести́ ‎(plestí); Albanian plah, plaf; Lithuanian pinti
*pléw-mon- lung Latin pulmō; Ancient Greek πλεύμων ‎(pleúmōn); Sanskrit क्लोमन् ‎(klóman); Lithuanian plaučiai; Latvian plaušas; Russian плюче ‎(pljuče); Old Prussian plauti; Serbo-Croatian pluća; Polish płuco
*plus-; *psul-; *pusl-; *bʰlus- (the original form distorted by folk etymologies) flea Latin pūlex; Lithuanian blusà; Latvian blusa; Russian блоха́ ‎(bloxá); Old Armenian լու ‎(lu); Sanskrit प्लुषि ‎(plúṣi); Ancient Greek ψύλλα ‎(psúlla); Albanian plesht; Pashto [script needed] ‎(vrāž.a); Old Norse fló; Old English flēah; English flea; Old High German flōh; German Floh; Yidgha [script needed] ‎(frīgo); Polish pchła
*pnew- to breathe Ancient Greek πνεῦμα ‎(pneûma); Old Norse fnýsa; Old English fnēosan; English sneeze; Old High German fnehan
*pṓds foot Lithuanian pėda; Latvian pēda; Latin pēs; Umbrian 𐌐𐌄𐌛𐌉 ‎(peři); Sanskrit पद् ‎(pad); English fōt; English foot; Old Armenian ոտն ‎(otn), հետ ‎(het); Ancient Greek πούς ‎(poús); Albanian poshtë, përposh; Tocharian A peṃ; Tocharian B paiyye; Ossetian фад ‎(fad); Old High German fuoz; German Fuß; Old Church Slavonic пѣшь ‎(pěšĭ); Russian пе́ший ‎(péšij); Old Prussian pe'da'; Hittite [script needed] ‎(pata); Lycian [script needed] ‎(pede-); Luwian [script needed] ‎(pati-); Avestan [script needed] ‎(pâdha); Old Norse fótr; Gothic 𐍆𐍉𐍄𐌿𐍃 ‎(fōtus); Old Persian 𐎱𐎠𐎭 ‎(pāda); Persian پا ‎(); Gaulish candetum; Middle Irish ined; Ancient Macedonian [script needed] ‎(argiopus)
*pórḱos farrow Latin porcus; Ancient Greek πόρκος ‎(pórkos); Lithuanian paršas; Old Prussian parstian; Old Church Slavonic прасѧ ‎(prasę), Polish prosię; Old English fearh; English farrow; Old Irish orc, orcán; Old High German farah; German Ferkel; Umbrian [script needed] ‎(purka); Kurdish purs; Khotanese [script needed] ‎(pāsa)
*poymno- foam Latin pūmex, spūma; Lithuanian spaine; Sanskrit फेन ‎(phéna); Old Church Slavonic пѣна ‎(pěna); Russian пе́на ‎(péna); Polish piana; Old English fām; English foam; Old High German feim; German Feim; Ossetian фынк ‎(fynk); Old Prussian spoayno
*pray- to like Sanskrit प्रीणाति ‎(prīṇā́ti); Old Church Slavonic прѣѭ ‎(prějǫ); Russian прижать ‎(prižatʹ); Polish przać (Silesian regionalism); Latvian prieks; Ancient Greek πρᾶος ‎(prâos); Avestan [script needed] ‎(frā); Gothic 𐍆𐍂𐌴𐌹𐍃 ‎(freis), 𐍆𐍂𐌹𐌾𐍉𐌽 ‎(frijōn); Old English frēond; English free, friend; Old High German friunt; German Freund; Old Norse Frigg; Welsh rhydd; Old Irish ríar.
*preḱ- to ask; to pray Latin poscō; Tocharian A prak-, pärk-; Tocharian B prek-; Sanskrit पृच्छति ‎(pṛccháti); Old Armenian հարց ‎(harcʿ); Old Church Slavonic просити ‎(prositi); Russian проси́ть ‎(prosítʹ); Lithuanian piršti; Latvian pirstlis; Old High German frāga, forscōn; German fragen, forschen; Old English frignan; Old Norse fregna; Gothic 𐍆𐍂𐌰𐌹𐌷𐌽𐌰𐌽 ‎(fraihnan); Old Persian [script needed] ‎(fraθ-); Persian پرسیدن ‎(pursīdan); Avestan [script needed] ‎(pərəsaiti); Oscan [script needed] ‎(aparsam); Middle Welsh erchi, archaf; Old Irish arco; Umbrian [script needed] ‎(pepurkurent)
*prew- to jump Russian пры́гать ‎(prýgatʹ); Sanskrit प्रवते ‎(pravate); Old High German frosc; German Frosch; Old English frocga; English frog; Old Norse froskr; Lithuanian sprugstu, sprugti; Albanian fryj; Persian پریدن ‎(paredan)
*prih₁-mó- / *prō-to- foremost (→ first) Albanian parë; Avestan [script needed] ‎(parvō); Lithuanian pirmas; Latvian pirmais; Old High German furist, fruo; German Fürst, früh; Old English fyrst; English first; Ancient Greek πρότερος ‎(próteros); Hittite [script needed] ‎(para); Old Irish rem; Irish roimh; Kamviri [script needed] ‎(pürük); Lycian [script needed] ‎(pri); Old Church Slavonic прьвъ ‎(prĭvŭ); Oscan [script needed] ‎(perum); Old Norse fyrstr; Old Prussian pariy; Ossetian фыццаг ‎(fyccag), фараст ‎(farast); Russian пе́рвый ‎(pérvyj); Sanskrit पूर्व ‎(pūrva), प्रथम ‎(prathamá); Tocharian A parwät; Tocharian B parwe; Latin prīmus; Umbrian [script needed] ‎(pert); Welsh rwyf; Old Irish arsaid
*psten- breast Ancient Greek στῆθος ‎(stêthos); Old Armenian ստին ‎(stin); Sanskrit स्तन ‎(stána); Avestan [script needed] ‎(fštāna); Lithuanian spenys; Latvian spenis; Old Norse speni; Old High German spunni; German Spanferkel; Irish sine; Old Prussian spenis; Persian پستان ‎(pestān); English spean
*puHr- wheat Sanskrit पूर ‎(pūra); Ancient Greek πυρός ‎(purós); Lithuanian purai; Latvian pūŗi; Old Prussian pure; Old English fyrs; English furze; Old Church Slavonic пꙑрє ‎(pyre); Russian пыре́й ‎(pyréj)
*pulh₂- hair Sanskrit पुलस्ति ‎(pulastí), पुलक ‎(pulaka); Old Irish ul, ulcha; Ancient Greek πύλιγξ ‎(púlinks), πυλεών ‎(puleṓn); Kurdish pûr; Pashto [script needed] ‎(pal)