Appendix:List of Proto-Indo-European roots/p

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search
Root Meaning Derivatives
*peg- breast Sanskrit: पक्ष (pakṣá)
Latin: pectus
Latvian: paksis
Russian: пах (pax)
Tocharian A: päśśäṃ
Tocharian B: päścane
Old Irish: ucht
*ped- to walk
stumble
English: foot
Ancient Greek: πούς (poús), πέδον (pédon), πεζός (pezós)
Sanskrit: पद् (pad), पद (padá)
Latin: pēs, pēior, pessimus, impediō, oppidum, peccātum
*peh₂- to protect Sanskrit: पाति (pā́ti), पातृ (pātṛ́)
Tocharian A: pās
Tocharian B: pāsk
Ancient Greek: πῶυ (pôu), πῶμα (pôma), ποιμήν (poimḗn)
Latin: pāstum
Old High German: fōtar
German: Futter
Old English: fōda, ‎fōdor
English: food, fodder
Lithuanian: piemuõ
Gothic: 𐍆𐍉𐌳𐌾𐌰𐌽 (fōdjan), 𐍆𐍉𐌳𐍂 (fōdr)
Avestan: 𐬞𐬁𐬌𐬙𐬌 (pāiti)
Old Persian: 𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎱𐎠𐎺𐎠 (xšaçapāvā)
Persian: پاییدن (pāyīdan)
Old Norse: fœða, fóðr
Old Armenian: հաւրան (hawran)
*peh₃- to drink Russian: пить (pitʹ)
Sanskrit: पिबति (píbati)
Ancient Greek: πῑ́νω (pī́nō)
Albanian: pi
Old Irish: ibid
Welsh: yfed
Lithuanian: puota
Old Prussian: poieiti
Hittite: [script needed] (pas)
Thracian: [script needed] (pinon)
Old Armenian: ըմպեմ (əmpem)
Latin: bibō
Umbrian: [script needed] (puni)
Old Church Slavonic: пити (piti)
Polish: pić
*peḱ- to pluck *peḱu- (cattle)
Ancient Greek: πόκος (pókos), πέκω (pékō)
Latin: pecu, pecus
Lithuanian: pekus
Old Prussian: pecku
Sanskrit: पशु (páśu)
Kurdish: pas
Avestan: 𐬞𐬀𐬯𐬎 (pasu)
Gothic: 𐍆𐌰𐌹𐌷𐌿 (faihu)
Old English: feoh
English: fee
Old Norse:
Old High German: fihu
German: Vieh
Old Armenian: ասր (asr)
*pekʷ- to cook
become ripe
Latin: coquō
Albanian: pjek
Russian: печь (pečʹ)
Sanskrit: पचति (pácati)
Tocharian A: päk
Tocharian B: päk
Welsh: pobi
Ancient Greek: πέσσω (péssō)
Kamviri: [script needed] (puk)
Lithuanian: kepti
Latvian: cept
Old Church Slavonic: пекѫ (pekǫ)
Polish: piec
Persian: پختن (pukhtan)
Old Prussian: pektis
Old English: āfigen
*pel- flour Old Prussian: pelwo
Latin: palea
Sanskrit: पलाल (palāla)
Lithuanian: pelus
Latvian: pelus
Russian: поло́ва (polóva)
*pel- gray Albanian: plak
Old Armenian: ալիք (alikʿ)
Sanskrit: पलित (palitá)
Avestan: 𐬞𐬊𐬎𐬭𐬎𐬱𐬀 (pouruša)
Persian: [script needed] (pūrū)
Kurdish: pêl
Ancient Macedonian: [script needed] (pellus)
Ancient Greek: πολιός (poliós), πελιτνός (pelitnós)
Latin: palleō, pullus
Irish: liath
Welsh: llwyd
Lithuanian: pelekas
Latvian: pelēks
Old Prussian: pelē
Old Church Slavonic: плавъ (plavŭ)
Russian: пелёсый (peljósyj)
Polish: płowy
Old Norse: fǫlr
Old High German: falo
German: falb
Old English: fealu
English: fallow
*pel- skin Ancient Greek: πέλᾰς (pélas), πέλμᾰ (pélma)
Latin: pellis
Russian: пелена́ (pelená)
Gothic: 𐍆𐌹𐌻𐌻 (fill)
Old High German: fël
German: Fell
Old English: filmen
English: film
Old Norse: fjall
Lithuanian: palà, plėnė
Latvian: plēne
Old Prussian: pleynis
*pent- road Latin: pōns
Ancient Greek: πόντος (póntos)
Sanskrit: पथिन् (páthin)
Avestan: 𐬞𐬀𐬥𐬙𐬀̊ (pantå)
Russian: путь (putʹ)
Gothic: 𐍆𐌹𐌽𐌸𐌰𐌽 (finþan)
Old English: findan
English: find
Old High German: findan
German: finden
Old Norse: finna
Old Armenian: հուն (hun)
Kamviri: [script needed] (put)
Old Prussian: pentes
Old Irish: étain, áitt
Old Church Slavonic: пѫть (pǫtĭ)
Old Persian: [script needed] (paθim)
*per- go English: from, fare, firth, ford
Norwegian: fjǫrðr
German: fahren
Ancient Greek: πρό (pró), πείρω (peírō)
Sanskrit: पिपर्ति (piparti)
Latin: portus, experior
*perd- to fart Russian: перде́ть (perdétʹ)
Polish: pierdzieć
Sanskrit: पर्दते (párdate)
Lithuanian: persti
Latvian: pirst
Phrygian: [script needed] (perdomai)
Albanian: pjerth, pordhë
Old English: feortan
English: fart
Old High German: ferzan
German: furzen
Old Norse: freta
Ancient Greek: πέρδομαι (pérdomai)
Avestan: 𐬞𐬆𐬭𐬆𐬜𐬀𐬌𐬙𐬌 (pərəδaiti)
Welsh: rhech
*perḱ- rib Lithuanian: pìršys
Sanskrit: पर्शु (párśu)
Avestan: 𐬞𐬀𐬭𐬆𐬯𐬎 (parəsu)
Ossetian фарс (fars)
Old Church Slavonic: пръси (prŭsi)
Albanian: parz, parzëm
*pers- dust Tocharian A: pärs
Tocharian B: pärs
Avestan: 𐬞𐬀𐬭𐬱𐬎𐬫𐬀 (paršuya)
Lithuanian: purkšti
Latvian: pārsla
Old Norse: fors
Hittite: [script needed] (pappars)
Sanskrit: पृषत् (pṛ́ṣat)
Old Church Slavonic: прахъ (praxŭ)
Russian: прах (prax)
*pes- penis Ancient Greek: πέος (péos)
Latin: pēnis
Old High German: faselt
German: Fasel
Old Norse: fǫsull
Old English: fæsl
Sanskrit: पसस् (pásas)
*pet- to open arms Ancient Greek: πετάννῡμι (petánnūmi)
Latin: pateō, pandō
Avestan: 𐬞𐬀𐬚𐬀𐬥𐬀 (paθana)
Old Prussian: pettis
Lithuanian: petỹs
Old English: fæðm
English: fathom
Old Norse: faðmr
Faroese: favnur
Old High German: fadam, fademōn
German: Faden
Scottish Gaelic: aitheamh
Welsh: edau
Albanian: pjetem
Hittite: [script needed] (pattar)
*peth₂- to fly Old English: feþer
English: feather
Old High German: fedara
German: Feder
Old Norse: fjǫðr
Latin: petō, penna, accipiter
Sanskrit: पतति (pátati)
Hittite: [script needed] (pattar)
Ancient Greek: πτερόν (pterón), πίπτω (píptō), πέτομαι (pétomai), ὠκῠπέτης (ōkupétēs)
Welsh: adar, edn
Old Persian: [script needed] (udapatatā)
Old Armenian: թիռ (tʿiṙ)
Old Irish: ette, én
Avestan: 𐬞𐬀𐬙𐬀𐬌𐬙𐬌 (pataiti)
Latvian: pētīt
Albanian: shpendë
*pleh₁- fill Old English and English: full
Latin: pleō, plēnus
Ancient Greek: πολύς (polús), πίμπλημι (pímplēmi)
Sanskrit: पिपर्ति (piparti), पृणाति (pṛnā́ti)
*pleh₂- flat Hittite: [script needed] (palḫiš)
Old Armenian: հող (hoł), լայն (layn)
Lithuanian: plónas, platùs
Latvian: plãns, plañdît
Old Prussian: plonis
Old Irish: lían, lethan, lethaid
Welsh: lleyn, llwyn, lledu
Old English: feld
English: field, flat
Old High German: feld
German: Feld
Ancient Greek: πλᾰτύς (platús), πλανάω (planáō), πλάσσω (plássō)
Sanskrit: पृथु (pṛthú)
Avestan: 𐬟𐬭𐬀𐬚𐬀𐬵 (fraθah)
Latin: plānus
Russian: пло́ский (plóskij)
Old Church Slavonic: плоскъ (ploskŭ)
*pleh₂k- to hit Latin: plangō, plāga
Old English: flōc, flōcan
English: fluke
Ancient Greek: πληγή (plēgḗ), πλήσσω (plḗssō)
Old Church Slavonic: плакати (plakati)
Russian: пла́кать (plákatʹ, to weep)
Lithuanian: plakti
Old Irish: lén, léssaim
Albanian: ploje
Gothic: 𐍆𐌻𐍉𐌺𐌰𐌽 (flōkan)
Old Norse: flókinn
Old High German: fluoh
German: Fluch
*pleḱ- to plait/braid Ancient Greek: πλέκω (plékō), πλοκή (plokḗ)
Latin: plectō, plicō, simplex
Old Norse: flétta
Gothic: 𐍆𐌻𐌰𐌷𐍄𐍉 (flahtō)
Old High German: flehtan
German: flechten
Old English: fleohtan, fleax
English: flax
Sanskrit: प्रश्न (praśna)
Avestan: 𐬆𐬭𐬆𐬰𐬀𐬙𐬊 𐬟𐬭𐬀𐬱𐬥𐬆𐬨 (ərəzato frašnəm)
Old Church Slavonic: плести (plesti)
Russian: плести́ (plestí)
Albanian: plah, plaf
Lithuanian: pinti
*pnew- to breathe Ancient Greek: πνεῦμα (pneûma)
Old Norse: fnýsa
Old English: fnēosan
English: sneeze
Old High German: fnehan
*psten- breast Ancient Greek: στῆθος (stêthos)
Old Armenian: ստին (stin)
Sanskrit: स्तन (stána)
Avestan: 𐬟𐬱𐬙𐬁𐬥𐬀 (fštāna)
Lithuanian: spenys
Latvian: spenis
Old Norse: speni
Old High German: spunni
German: Spanferkel
Irish: sine
Old Prussian: spenis
Persian: پستان (pestān)
English: spean
*preyH- to like Sanskrit: प्रीणाति (prīṇā́ti)
Old Church Slavonic: прѣѭ (prějǫ)
Russian: прижать (prižatʹ)
Polish: przać (Silesian regionalism)
Latvian: prieks
Ancient Greek: πρᾶος (prâos)
Avestan: 𐬟𐬭𐬁 (frā)
Gothic: 𐍆𐍂𐌴𐌹𐍃 (freis), 𐍆𐍂𐌹𐌾𐍉𐌽 (frijōn)
Old English: frēond
English: free, friend
Old High German: friunt
German: Freund
Old Norse: Frigg
Welsh: rhydd
Old Irish: ríar.
*preḱ- to ask
to pray
Latin: poscō
Tocharian A: prak-, pärk-
Tocharian B: prek-
Sanskrit: पृच्छति (pṛccháti)
Old Armenian: հարց (harcʿ)
Old Church Slavonic: просити (prositi)
Russian: проси́ть (prosítʹ)
Lithuanian: piršti
Latvian: pirstlis
Old High German: frāga, forscōn
German: fragen, forschen
Old English: frignan
Old Norse: fregna
Gothic: 𐍆𐍂𐌰𐌹𐌷𐌽𐌰𐌽 (fraihnan)
Old Persian: [script needed] (fraθ-)
Persian: پرسیدن (pursīdan)
Avestan: 𐬞𐬆𐬭𐬆𐬯𐬀𐬌𐬙𐬌 (pərəsaiti)
Oscan: [script needed] (aparsam)
Middle Welsh: erchi, archaf
Old Irish: arco
Umbrian: [script needed] (pepurkurent)
*prew- to jump Russian: пры́гать (prýgatʹ)
Sanskrit: प्रवते (pravate)
Old High German: frosc
German: Frosch
Old English: frocga
English: frog
Old Norse: froskr
Lithuanian: sprugstu, sprugti
Albanian: fryj
Persian: پریدن (paredan)
*puHr- wheat Sanskrit: पूर (pūra)
Ancient Greek: πυρός (purós)
Lithuanian: purai
Latvian: pūŗi
Old Prussian: pure
Old English: fyrs
English: furze
Old Church Slavonic: пꙑре (pyre)
Russian: пыре́й (pyréj)
*pulh₂- hair Sanskrit: पुलस्ति (pulastí), पुलक (pulaka)
Old Irish: ul, ulcha
Ancient Greek: πύλιγξ (púlinx), πυλεών (puleṓn)
Kurdish: pûr
Pashto: [script needed] (pal)