Appendix:List of Proto-Indo-European roots/s

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search
Root Meaning Derivatives
*(s)mey- to laugh OCS smĕjǫ, Russ. сме́яться (sméjatʹsja), Skr. स्मयते (smayate), Lith. smagintis, Ltv. smaids, Toch. smi/smi, Lat. mīrus, Gk. μεῖδος (meîdos), Ir. míad/, Polish śmiech, Eng. smearcian/smirk
*(s)mer- to remember Eng. murnan/mourn, Skr. स्मरति (smarati), Av. smaraiti, Lat. memor, Ir. airmmert/, Welsh armerth, Gaul. Smerius, Goth. maúrnan, ON Mímir, Gm. mornēn/, Gk. μέρμερος (mérmeros), Arm. մորմոք (mormokʿ), Lith. pamiršti, Kurd. bír
*(s)neh₁- to spin Ltv. snāte, Skr. स्नायति (snāyati), Ir. snáthat/snáthad, Eng. nǣdl/needle, Gm. nādala/Nadel, Goth. 𐌽𐌴𐌸𐌻𐌰 (nēþla), ON nál, Russ. нить (nitʹ), Lat. neō, Gk. νήθω (nḗthō), Welsh nodwydd
*(s)teg- to cover Gk. στέγω (stégō), Lat. tegō, Skr. स्थगति (sthagati), Lith. stogas, Ltv. stags, Ir. tech/teach, Gm. thecken/decken, Eng. þæc/thatch, ON þekja, Russ. стог (stog), Polish stóg, Old Prussian stogis, Umbrian tehteřim, Welsh ty
*(s)teh₂y- to hide Skr. स्तायत् (stāyat), Av. tāyu, Russ. таить (tait'), Ir. táid/, Hitt. tayezzi, Gk. τηΰσιος (tēǘsios)/, Toch. /enestai
*(s)ter- sterile Gk. στεῖρα (steîra), Lat. sterilis, Arm. ստերջ (sterǰ), Alb. shtjerre, Gm. stero/, Skr. स्तरी (starī), Goth. 𐍃𐍄𐌰𐌹𐍂𐍉 (stairō), Eng. stierc/, Bulg. sterica
*saws- to dry Alb. tha, Lith. sausa, Ltv. sauss, Old Prussian sausā, Eng. sēar/sear, Gm. sōrēn/—, Skr. शुष्यति (śuyati), Av. haoš, Pers. uška/xošk, Russ. сухо́й (suxój), Gk. αὗος (haûos)/, Lat. sūdus
*sed- to sit OCS сѣдѣти (sěděti), Russ. сиде́ть (sidétʹ), Polish siedzieć, Lat. sedeō, Lith. sėdėti, Ltv. sēdēt, Gaul. essedum, Eng. sittan/sit, Gm. sizzan/sitzen; sezzal/, ON sitja, Goth. 𐍃𐌹𐍄𐌰𐌽 (sitan), Gk. ἕζομαι (hézomai)/, Ir. saidim/suidh, Welsh seddu, Skr. सीदति (sīdati), Av. nišaðayeiti, Pers. niyašayadan/nešastan, Arm. նիստ (nist), Old Prussian sīdons, Umbrian sersitu, Toch. sätk/
*seǵʰ- to hold Skr. सहते (sahate), Gk. ἔχω (ékhō), Gm. sigu/Sieg, ON. sigr, Eng. sige/—
*seh₁- to sow Russ. се́ять (séjatʹ); семя (semja), Lith. sėti, Ltv. sēt, Eng. sāwan/sow, Old Prussian semen, OCS сѣти (sěti), Gm. sāen/säen, ON , Goth. 𐍃𐌰𐌹𐌰𐌽 (saian), Lat. serere, Umbrian semenies, Polish siać, Welsh hil, Ir. sí/síol, Toch. sāry/, Hitt. sai, Skr. सायक (sāyaka), Umbrian semenies
*seh₁y- to sift Alb. shosh, Lith. sietas, Ltv. siets, Ir. sithlad/síolthughadh, Welsh hidl, ON sáld, Gk. ἠθέω (ēthéō), Russ. си́то (síto), Polish sito, OCS sito
*seh₂g- to seek out Hitt. šak(k), Eng. sǣcan/beseech, Gm. suohhen/suchen, Goth. 𐍃𐍉𐌺𐌾𐌰𐌽 (sōkjan), ON sǿkja, Gk. ἡγέομαι (hēgéomai), Ir. saigim/, Welsh haeddu, Lat. sagīre
*sekʷ- to follow Lat. sequor, Lith. sekti, Ltv. sekt, Gk. ἕπομαι (hépomai), Ir. sech/seach, Welsh hep, ON seggr, Skr. सचते (sacate), Av. hačaitē, Eng. secg/—, Pers. hačā/, Toch. säk/, Alb. shoh, Gm. beinsegga/
*selp- butter Toch. älyp/alype, Gk. ἔλπος (élpos), Hitt. salpa-, Alb. gjalpë, Skr. सर्पिस् (sarpis), Eng. sealf/salve, Osset. carv/, Pers. /čarbi, Gm. salba/Salbe, Goth. 𐍃𐌰𐌻𐌱𐍉𐌽 (salbōn)
*sem- summer Skr. समा (samā), Eng. sumor/summer, Av. ham, Arm. ամառն (amaṙn), Gm. sumar/Sommer, ON sumar, Welsh haf, Ir. samrad/samhradh, Toch. me/māye
*skand- to leap Skr. स्कन्दति (skandati), Gk. σκάνδαλον (skándalon), Ir. scendim/scinn, Lat. scandere
*skap- tool Russ. щепа́ (ščepá), Lith. kapoti, Ltv. kaplis, Gm. skaft/, Gk. σκεπάρνιον (skepárnion), Lat. capus, Pers. /kāfad, Alb. kep, Old Prussian warnaycopo, ON skapt, OCS kopajǫ
*(s)kend- to shine Alb. hënë/hânë, Middle Bret. cann, Welsh cann, Skr. candra
*smek- chin Ir. smech/smeach, Lith. smakras, Ltv. smakrs, Skr. श्मश्रु (śmaśru), Hitt. zamakur, Arm. մաւրուք (mawrukʿ), Alb. mjekër, Lat. maxilla
*sneygʷʰ- (to) snow Lith. sniegas, Ltv. sniegs, Old Prussian snaygis, Russ. снег (sneg), Ir. snechta/sneachta, Skr. स्नेह (sneha), Eng. snāw/snow, Gk. νίφα (nípha), Gm. sneo/Schnee, ON snjór, Goth. 𐍃𐌽𐌰𐌹𐍅𐍃 (snaiws), Polish śnieg, Welsh nyf, Av. snaēža, Toch. /śiñcatstse
*snewdʰ- mist Av. snaoða, Welsh nudd, Gk. νοῦθος (noûthos), Lat. nūbēs
*sp(y)ew- to spit Lat. spuere, Gk. πτύω (ptúō), OCS pljujǫ, Lith. spjauti, Ltv. spļaut, Eng. spiwan/spew, Gm. spīwan/speien, ON spýja, Goth. 𐍃𐍀𐌴𐌹𐍅𐌰𐌽 (speiwan), Skr. ष्ठीवति (hīvati), Av. spāma, Arm. թուք (tʿukʿ), Pers. /tuf, Osset. thu, Russ. плюю (pljuju), Polish pluć
*sperg- sparrow Gm. sperk/sperling, Eng. spearwa/sparrow, Goth. sparwa, ON spǫrr, Toch. pār/pāra-, Gk. sparasion?, Old Prussian spurglis, Pers. /parasto, Lat. parra, Umbrian parfam, Ir. serriach/
*splenǵʰ- spleen Gk. σπλήν (splḗn), Lat. liēn, Ir. selg/sealg, Av. sparazan, Skr. प्लीहन् (plīhan), Lith. blužnis, Old Prussian blusne, Kamviri pu, Arm. փայծաղն (pʿaycałn), OCS slĕzena, Russ. селезёнка (selezjónka), Polish śledziona, Bret. felc'h
*srebʰ- to gulp Lat. sorbēo, Arm. արբենամ (arbenam), Alb. gjerbë, Gk. ῥοφέω (rhophéō), Ir. srub, Lith. srėbti, Ltv. surbt; surbju, Russ. сёрбать (sjórbatʹ), Polish siorbać
*steh₂- to stand Av. hištaiti, Skr. तिष्ठति (tihati), Eng. standan/stand, Lat. stō, Umbrian stahmei, Oscan staíet, Lith. stoti, Ltv. stāt, Old Prussian stacle, OCS stati, Russ. стать (statʹ), Gm. stān/stehen, Polish stać, Phryg. eistani, Goth. 𐍃𐍄𐌰𐌽𐌳𐌰𐌽 (standan), ON stóð, Fo. standa, Pers. aištata/istādan, Alb. shtuara, Welsh gwastad, Toch. tām/stām, Gk. ἵστημι (hístēmi), Ir. tá/tá, Hitt. išta, Luw. išta-, Arm. ստանամ (stanam), Lyc. ta-
*steygʰ- to stride, to step Alb. shteg, Lith. stigti, Ltv. steigt, Ir. techt/teachd, Welsh taith, Goth. 𐍃𐍄𐌴𐌹𐌲𐌰𐌽 (steigan), ON stígan, Eng. stǣger/stair, Gm. stīgan/steigen, Gk. στείχω (steíkhō), Skr. स्तिघ्नोति (stighnoti), Russ. достига́ть (dostigátʹ), Polish ścigać, OCS postigǫnti
*sweh₂d- sweet Eng. swēte/sweet, Gk. ἡδύς (hēdús), Lat. suāvis, Gaul. Suadurīx, Gm. suozi/süss, ON sœtr, Welsh chwant, Ir. sant/, Skr. स्वादु (svādu), Lith. sūdyti, Av. xʷāsta, Goth. 𐍃𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃 (sutis), Toch. swār/swāre
*swey- to whistle Russ. свист (svist), Lith. švilpti, Ltv. svilpiens, Skr. क्ष्वेडति (kveati), Ir. ind fet/fead, Welsh chwythu, Polish świst, Gk. σίζω (sízō)/, Lat. sibāre, Goth. 𐍃𐍅𐌹𐌲𐌻𐍉𐌽 (swiglōn), Gm. swegala/, Eng. swegalōn/, OCS svistati
*sweyd- sweat Arm. քիրտն (kʿirtn), Alb. djersë, Eng. swǣtan/sweat, Lith. saldus, Ltv. sviedri, Skr. स्वेदते (svedate), Gk. ἱδρόω (hidróō), Lat. sūdor, Gm. sweiz/Schweiss, Welsh chwys, ON sveiti, Av. xvaēda
*swel- to burn Ltv. svelt, Lith. sveltu, Goth. 𐍃𐍅𐌹𐌻𐍄𐌰𐌽 (swiltan), ON svalr, Eng. swelan, Gk. ἥλιος (hḗlios), Skr. स्वरति (svarati), Toch. slam/sleme
*swep- sleep Lith. sapnas, Skr. स्वप्न (svapna), Lat. somnus, ON svefn, Toch. /pane, Gk. ὕπνος (húpnos), Av. xvafna, Ir. suán/suan, OCS sunu, Russ. сон (son), Arm. քուն (kʿun), Alb. gjumë, Welsh hun, Eng. swefan/—, Pers. /xāb
*swep- to throw Lat. supāre, Skr. स्वपू (svapū), Lith. supti, Ltv. šūpāt, OCS svepiti sę, Russ. сы́пать (sýpatʹ), ON sófl, Polish sypać
*swergʰ- to be ill Goth. 𐍃𐌰𐌿𐍂𐌲𐌰 (saurga), Gm. soraga/Sorge, Skr. सूर्क्षति (sūrkati), Ir. serg/, Lith. sirgti, Ltv. sirgt, Eng. sorg/sorrow, ON sorg, Alb. dergjet, OCS sraga, Russ. сорога (soroga), Toch. särk/sark, Arm. երկն (erkn)
*syuh₁- to sew Skr. सीव्यति (sīvyati), Lat. suere, Eng. seowian/sew, Lith. siūti, Ltv. šūt, Russ. шить (šit'), Polish szyć, ON sýja, Goth. 𐍃𐌹𐌿𐌾𐌰𐌽 (siujan), Gk. ὑμήν (ὑμήν), Old Prussian schumeno, Gm. siuwen/Saum, OCS šijǫ, Hitt. suel