Appendix:List of Proto-Indo-European roots/s

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Root Meaning Derivatives
*(s)mey- to laugh OCS smĕjǫ, Russ. сме́яться(sméjatʹsja), Skr. स्मयते (smayate), Lith. smagintis, Ltv. smaids, Toch. smi/smi, Lat. mīrus, Gk. μεῖδος(meîdos), Ir. míad/, Polish śmiech, Eng. smearcian/smirk
*(s)mer- to remember Eng. murnan/mourn, Skr. स्मरति (smarati), Av. smaraiti, Lat. memor, Ir. airmmert/, Welsh armerth, Gaul. Smerius, Goth. maúrnan, ON Mímir, Gm. mornēn/, Gk. μέρμερος(mérmeros), Arm. մորմոք(mormokʿ), Lith. pamiršti, Kurd. bír
*(s)neh₁- to spin Ltv. snāte, Skr. स्नायति (snāyati), Ir. snáthat/snáthad, Eng. nǣdl/needle, Gm. nādala/Nadel, Goth. 𐌽𐌴𐌸𐌻𐌰(nēþla), ON nál, Russ. нить(nitʹ), Lat. neō, Gk. νήθω(nḗthō), Welsh nodwydd
*(s)teg- to cover Gk. στέγω(stégō), Lat. tegō, Skr. स्थगति (sthagati), Lith. stogas, Ltv. stags, Ir. tech/teach, Gm. thecken/decken, Eng. þæc/thatch, ON þekja, Russ. стог(stog), Polish stóg, Old Prussian stogis, Umbrian tehteřim, Welsh ty
*(s)teh₂y- to hide Skr. स्तायत् (stāyat), Av. tāyu, Russ. таить (tait'), Ir. táid/, Hitt. tayezzi, Gk. τηΰσιος(tēǘsios)/, Toch. /enestai
*(s)ter- sterile Gk. στεῖρα(steîra), Lat. sterilis, Arm. ստերջ(sterǰ), Alb. shtjerre, Gm. stero/, Skr. स्तरी (starī), Goth. 𐍃𐍄𐌰𐌹𐍂𐍉(stairō), Eng. stierc/, Bulg. sterica
*saws- to dry Alb. tha, Lith. sausa, Ltv. sauss, Old Prussian sausā, Eng. sēar/sear, Gm. sōrēn/—, Skr. शुष्यति (śuyati), Av. haoš, Pers. uška/xošk, Russ. сухо́й(suxój), Gk. αὗος(haûos)/, Lat. sūdus
*sed- to sit OCS сѣдѣти(sěděti), Russ. сиде́ть(sidétʹ), Polish siedzieć, Lat. sedeō, Lith. sėdėti, Ltv. sēdēt, Gaul. essedum, Eng. sittan/sit, Gm. sizzan/sitzen; sezzal/, ON sitja, Goth. 𐍃𐌹𐍄𐌰𐌽(sitan), Gk. ἕζομαι(hézomai)/, Ir. saidim/suidh, Welsh seddu, Skr. सीदति(sīdati), Av. nišaðayeiti, Pers. niyašayadan/nešastan, Arm. նիստ(nist), Old Prussian sīdons, Umbrian sersitu, Toch. sätk/
*seǵʰ- to hold Skr. सहते (sahate), Gk. ἔχω(ékhō), Gm. sigu/Sieg, ON. sigr, Eng. sige/—
*seh₁- to sow Russ. се́ять(séjatʹ); семя (semja), Lith. sėti, Ltv. sēt, Eng. sāwan/sow, Old Prussian semen, OCS сѣти(sěti), Gm. sāen/säen, ON , Goth. 𐍃𐌰𐌹𐌰𐌽(saian), Lat. serere, Umbrian semenies, Polish siać, Welsh hil, Ir. sí/síol, Toch. sāry/, Hitt. sai, Skr. सायक (sāyaka), Umbrian semenies
*seh₁y- to sift Alb. shosh, Lith. sietas, Ltv. siets, Ir. sithlad/síolthughadh, Welsh hidl, ON sáld, Gk. ἠθέω(ēthéō), Russ. си́то(síto), Polish sito, OCS sito
*seh₂g- to seek out Hitt. šak(k), Eng. sǣcan/beseech, Gm. suohhen/suchen, Goth. 𐍃𐍉𐌺𐌾𐌰𐌽(sōkjan), ON sǿkja, Gk. ἡγέομαι(hēgéomai), Ir. saigim/, Welsh haeddu, Lat. sagīre
*sekʷ- to follow Lat. sequor, Lith. sekti, Ltv. sekt, Gk. ἕπομαι(hépomai), Ir. sech/seach, Welsh hep, ON seggr, Skr. सचते (sacate), Av. hačaitē, Eng. secg/—, Pers. hačā/, Toch. säk/, Alb. shoh, Gm. beinsegga/
*selp- butter Toch. älyp/alype, Gk. ἔλπος(élpos), Hitt. salpa-, Alb. gjalpë, Skr. सर्पिस् (sarpis), Eng. sealf/salve, Osset. carv/, Pers. /čarbi, Gm. salba/Salbe, Goth. 𐍃𐌰𐌻𐌱𐍉𐌽(salbōn)
*sem- summer Skr. समा (samā), Eng. sumor/summer, Av. ham, Arm. ամառն(amaṙn), Gm. sumar/Sommer, ON sumar, Welsh haf, Ir. samrad/samhradh, Toch. me/māye
*skand- to leap Skr. स्कन्दति (skandati), Gk. σκάνδαλον(skándalon), Ir. scendim/scinn, Lat. scandere
*skap- tool Russ. щепа́(ščepá), Lith. kapoti, Ltv. kaplis, Gm. skaft/, Gk. σκεπάρνιον(skepárnion), Lat. capus, Pers. /kāfad, Alb. kep, Old Prussian warnaycopo, ON skapt, OCS kopajǫ
*(s)kend- to shine Alb. hënë/hânë, Middle Bret. cann, Welsh cann, Skr. candra
*smek- chin Ir. smech/smeach, Lith. smakras, Ltv. smakrs, Skr. श्मश्रु (śmaśru), Hitt. zamakur, Arm. մաւրուք(mawrukʿ), Alb. mjekër, Lat. maxilla
*sneygʷʰ- (to) snow Lith. sniegas, Ltv. sniegs, Old Prussian snaygis, Russ. снег(sneg), Ir. snechta/sneachta, Skr. स्नेह (sneha), Eng. snāw/snow, Gk. νίφα(nípha), Gm. sneo/Schnee, ON snjór, Goth. 𐍃𐌽𐌰𐌹𐍅𐍃(snaiws), Polish śnieg, Welsh nyf, Av. snaēža, Toch. /śiñcatstse
*snewdʰ- mist Av. snaoða, Welsh nudd, Gk. νοῦθος(noûthos), Lat. nūbēs
*sp(y)ew- to spit Lat. spuere, Gk. πτύω(ptúō), OCS pljujǫ, Lith. spjauti, Ltv. spļaut, Eng. spiwan/spew, Gm. spīwan/speien, ON spýja, Goth. 𐍃𐍀𐌴𐌹𐍅𐌰𐌽(speiwan), Skr. ष्ठीवति (hīvati), Av. spāma, Arm. թուք(tʿukʿ), Pers. /tuf, Osset. thu, Russ. плюю (pljuju), Polish pluć
*sperg- sparrow Gm. sperk/sperling, Eng. spearwa/sparrow, Goth. sparwa, ON spǫrr, Toch. pār/pāra-, Gk. sparasion?, Old Prussian spurglis, Pers. /parasto, Lat. parra, Umbrian parfam, Ir. serriach/
*splenǵʰ- spleen Gk. σπλήν(splḗn), Lat. liēn, Ir. selg/sealg, Av. sparazan, Skr. प्लीहन् (plīhan), Lith. blužnis, Old Prussian blusne, Kamviri pu, Arm. փայծաղն(pʿaycałn), OCS slĕzena, Russ. селезёнка(selezjónka), Polish śledziona, Bret. felc'h
*srebʰ- to gulp Lat. sorbēo, Arm. արբենամ(arbenam), Alb. gjerbë, Gk. ῥοφέω(rhophéō), Ir. srub, Lith. srėbti, Ltv. surbt; surbju, Russ. сёрбать(sjórbatʹ), Polish siorbać
*steh₂- to stand Av. hištaiti, Skr. तिष्ठति (tihati), Eng. standan/stand, Lat. stō, Umbrian stahmei, Oscan staíet, Lith. stoti, Ltv. stāt, Old Prussian stacle, OCS stati, Russ. стать(statʹ), Gm. stān/stehen, Polish stać, Phryg. eistani, Goth. 𐍃𐍄𐌰𐌽𐌳𐌰𐌽(standan), ON stóð, Fo. standa, Pers. aištata/istādan, Alb. shtuara, Welsh gwastad, Toch. tām/stām, Gk. ἵστημι(hístēmi), Ir. tá/tá, Hitt. išta, Luw. išta-, Arm. ստանամ(stanam), Lyc. ta-
*steygʰ- to stride, to step Alb. shteg, Lith. stigti, Ltv. steigt, Ir. techt/teachd, Welsh taith, Goth. 𐍃𐍄𐌴𐌹𐌲𐌰𐌽(steigan), ON stígan, Eng. stǣger/stair, Gm. stīgan/steigen, Gk. στείχω(steíkhō), Skr. स्तिघ्नोति (stighnoti), Russ. достига́ть(dostigátʹ), Polish ścigać, OCS postigǫnti
*sweh₂d- sweet Eng. swēte/sweet, Gk. ἡδύς(hēdús), Lat. suāvis, Gaul. Suadurīx, Gm. suozi/süss, ON sœtr, Welsh chwant, Ir. sant/, Skr. स्वादु (svādu), Lith. sūdyti, Av. xʷāsta, Goth. 𐍃𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃(sutis), Toch. swār/swāre
*swey- to whistle Russ. свист(svist), Lith. švilpti, Ltv. svilpiens, Skr. क्ष्वेडति (kveati), Ir. ind fet/fead, Welsh chwythu, Polish świst, Gk. σίζω(sízō)/, Lat. sibāre, Goth. 𐍃𐍅𐌹𐌲𐌻𐍉𐌽(swiglōn), Gm. swegala/, Eng. swegalōn/, OCS svistati
*sweyd- sweat Arm. քիրտն(kʿirtn), Alb. djersë, Eng. swǣtan/sweat, Lith. saldus, Ltv. sviedri, Skr. स्वेदते (svedate), Gk. ἱδρόω(hidróō), Lat. sūdor, Gm. sweiz/Schweiss, Welsh chwys, ON sveiti, Av. xvaēda
*swel- to burn Ltv. svelt, Lith. sveltu, Goth. 𐍃𐍅𐌹𐌻𐍄𐌰𐌽(swiltan), ON svalr, Eng. swelan, Gk. ἥλιος(hḗlios), Skr. स्वरति (svarati), Toch. slam/sleme
*swep- sleep Lith. sapnas, Skr. स्वप्न (svapna), Lat. somnus, ON svefn, Toch. /pane, Gk. ὕπνος(húpnos), Av. xvafna, Ir. suán/suan, OCS sunu, Russ. сон(son), Arm. քուն(kʿun), Alb. gjumë, Welsh hun, Eng. swefan/—, Pers. /xāb
*swep- to throw Lat. supāre, Skr. स्वपू (svapū), Lith. supti, Ltv. šūpāt, OCS svepiti sę, Russ. сы́пать(sýpatʹ), ON sófl, Polish sypać
*swergʰ- to be ill Goth. 𐍃𐌰𐌿𐍂𐌲𐌰(saurga), Gm. soraga/Sorge, Skr. सूर्क्षति (sūrkati), Ir. serg/, Lith. sirgti, Ltv. sirgt, Eng. sorg/sorrow, ON sorg, Alb. dergjet, OCS sraga, Russ. сорога (soroga), Toch. särk/sark, Arm. երկն(erkn)
*syuh₁- to sew Skr. सीव्यति (sīvyati), Lat. suere, Eng. seowian/sew, Lith. siūti, Ltv. šūt, Russ. шить (šit'), Polish szyć, ON sýja, Goth. 𐍃𐌹𐌿𐌾𐌰𐌽(siujan), Gk. ὑμήν(ὑμήν), Old Prussian schumeno, Gm. siuwen/Saum, OCS šijǫ, Hitt. suel