Appendix:List of protologisms/third person singular gender neutral pronouns

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Many third-person singular gender-neutral pronouns have been proposed. This is a list of those that have been proposed, whether they are attested in use or not. Those which are attested are repeated in an Appendix.

Nominative (subject) Accusative (object) Possessive adjective Possessive pronoun Reflexive
Elverson[1] ey laughed I kissed em eir head hurts that is eirs ey feeds emself
Spivak (original)[2] e laughed I kissed em eir head hurts that is eirs e feeds emself
Spivak variants e / ey laughed I kissed em / eir eir head hurts that is eirs e / ey feeds emself / eirself
sie and hir[3] sie laughed I kissed hir hir head hurts that is hirs sie feeds hirself
s/he and hir[4] s/he laughed I kissed hir hir head hurts that is hirs s/he feeds hirself
ze and hir[5] ze laughed I kissed hir hir head hurts that is hirs ze feeds hirself
xe[6] xe laughed I kissed xem xyr head hurts that is xyrs xe feeds xemself/xyrself
ve[7] ve laughed I kissed ver vis head hurts that is vis ve feeds verself
vey[8] vey laughed I kissed ve vy head hurts that is vyn vey feeds vyself
ze and mer[9] ze laughed I kissed mer zer head hurts that is zers ze feeds zemself
e, em, es[10] e laughed I kissed em es head hurts
e, em, e's[11] e laughed I kissed em e's head hurts that is e's e feeds emself
e and het e laughed I kissed het het head hurts that is hets e feeds hetself
thon[12][13][14] thon laughed I kissed thon thons head hurts that is thon's thon feeds thonself
Humanist[15][16] hu laughed I kissed hum hus head hurts that is hus hu feeds huself
hesh hesh laughed I kissed hesh hesh's head hurts that is hesh's hesh feeds heshself
ne ne laughed I kissed nem nir head hurts that is nirs ne feeds nemself
hiser or his'er [17] he'er laughed I kissed him'er/himer his'er/hiser head hurts that is his'ers/hisers
en en laughed I kissed en ens head hurts that is ens en feeds enself
hi hi laughed I kissed hem hes head hurts that is hes hi feeds hemself
le le laughed I kissed lim lis head hurts that is lis le feeds limself
himer himer laughed I kissed himer himer's head hurts that is himers himer feeds himerself
ir ir laughed I kissed iro irs head hurts that is irs ir feeds irself
se se laughed I kissed sim sis head hurts that is sis se feeds simself
hse hse laughed I kissed hse hse's head hurts that is hse's hse feeds hseself
co co laughed I kissed co cos head hurts that is co's co feeds coself
tey, tem, ter[18] tey laughed I kissed tem ter head hurts that is ters
tey tey laughed I kissed tem term head hurts that is terms term feeds termself
shkle shkle laughed I kissed shkler/shklim shklers head hurts that is shklers term feeds shklimself
ze ze laughed I kissed zim zees head hurts that is zees ze feeds zeeself
per[19] per laughed I kissed per pers head hurts that is pers per feeds perself
na na laughed I kissed nan nas head hurts that is nas na feeds naself
en en laughed I kissed ar es head hurts that is es en feeds arself
rim rim laughed I kissed run ris head hurts that is ris rim feeds rimself.
ae ae laughed I kissed ae ae's head hurts that is ae's ae feeds aeself
ay ay laughed I kissed ay ay's head hurts that is ay's ay feeds ayself
et et laughed I kissed et ets head hurts that is ets et feeds etself
heshe heshe laughed I kissed hen hes head hurts that is hes heshe feeds hemself
hann hann laughed I kissed hann hanns head hurts that is hanns hann feeds hannself
herm herm laughed I kissed herm herm's head hurts that is herm's herm feeds hermself
phe phe laughed I kissed phe phe's head hurts that is phe's phe feeds phe's self


  1. ^ "Transgender" pronouns coined by Christine M. Elverson of Skokie, Illinois, to win a contest in 1975. (Judie Black (23 August 1975), “Ey has a word for it”, in Chicago Tribune.) Promoted as preferable to other major contenders (sie, zie and singular "they") by John Williams's Gender-neutral Pronoun FAQ (2004).
  2. ^ Popularized by LambdaMOO in 1991, based on the use of E, Ey, and Eir in The Joy of TeX by Michael Spivak (1983).
  3. ^ First recorded use on Usenet: Chip Hitchcock (26 May 1981), “receptors”, in fa.sf-lovers, Usenet[1], retrieved 1 January 2007.
  4. ^ As used in science fiction like Peter David's Star Trek: New Frontier book series.
  5. ^ Example: Kate Bornstein (1998) My Gender Workbook: How to Become a Real Man, a Real Woman, the Real You, or Something Else Entirely[2], Psychology Press, →ISBN.
  6. ^ A Discussion about Theory of Mind, a paper from 2000 that uses and defines these pronouns.
  7. ^ Proposed by New Zealand writer Keri Hulme some time in the 1980s. Also used by writer Greg Egan for non-gendered artificial intelligences and "asex" humans: Greg Egan (July 1998) Diaspora[3], Victor Gollancz, →ISBN; Greg Egan (1995) Distress, →ISBN.
  8. ^ Created to mimic the phonology of I and thou; see Allie Hart (accessed 22 September 2014), “Genderless Pronouns”, in (Please provide the title of the work)[4].
  9. ^ Richard Creel (1997), “Ze, Zer, Mer”, in APA Newsletters[5], American Philosophical Association, retrieved 15 May 2006.
  10. ^ James Rogers (January 1890), “That Impersonal Pronoun”, in The Writer[6], volume 4, issue 1, pages 12–13.
  11. ^ Victor J. Stone (25 August 1989), “E has a modest proposal on ungendered personal pronouns”, in The New York Times[7].
  12. ^ Proposed in 1884 by American lawyer Charles Crozat Converse: C[harles] C[rozat] Converse (23 July 1884), “A new pronoun”, in The Critic and Good Literature, issue 31, page 55.
  13. ^ C[harles] Crozat Converse (November 1889), “That desired impersonal pronoun”, in The Writer, volume 3, issue 2, pages 247–248.
  14. ^ “Epicene”, in The Mavens' Word of the Day[8], Random House, 12 August 1998, retrieved 20 December 2006.
  15. ^ Used in several college humanities texts published by Bandanna Books. Originated by editor Sasha Newborn in 1982.
  16. ^ Sasha Newborn (23 July 1998), “Humanist pronouns”, in , Usenet[9], message-ID <>.
  17. ^ “Mrs. Ella Young invents pronoun”, in Chicago Tribune, 7 January 1912. The original usage with the apostrophe appears to be Mrs. Young's intention and is found earliest.
  18. ^ “Desexing the language”, in Ms., New York Magazine, December 1971, page 103, cited in Elizabeth Isele (1994), “Casey Miller and Kate Swift: Women who dared to disturb the lexicon”, in WILLA[10], volume 3, pages 8–10.
  19. ^ MediaMOO's "person" gender, derived from Marge Piercy's Woman on the Edge of Time (1979), in which people of 2137 use per as their sole third-person pronoun.