Appendix:List of shibboleths
This appendix lists shibboleths: words and phrases whose pronunciations are used to identify a language or dialect.
Northern Irish English
- aitch vs. haitch
- some consider aitch to be the form used by Protestants and haitch the form used by Catholics
Southern USA accent
- schild en vriend (shield and friend)
- Used during the Battle of the Golden Spurs to identify Frenchmen in Bruges.
- Used during World War II to identify Dutch.
- un bon vin blanc (“a good white wine”)
- שיבולת \ שִׁבֹּלֶת (shibólet, “ear of grain”).
Southern Brazilian accent
- leite quente que dói nos dente (hot milk that hurts the teeth)
- road; path (road; path) (Used to check German spies during World War II, German soldiers had difficulty pronouncing Russian /r/ and voiced consonants.) (Vasily Zaytsev, Behind the Volga there was no land for us. Sniper's Notes, First published in 1981.)
- perejil (“parsley”)
- bûter, brea, en griene tsiis; wa't dat net sizze kin, is gjin oprjochte Fries (butter, bread, and green cheese; whoever can't say this is no genuine Frisian)