Appendix:Middle Indo-Aryan Swadesh lists

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This is a Swadesh list of Middle Indo-Aryan languages, specifically Pali, Sauraseni Prakrit, Maharastri Prakrit, Ardhamagadhi Prakrit and Gandhari, compared with that of Sanskrit, as well as English.

List[edit]

English Sanskrit
Saṃskṛt
Buddhist Hybrid Sanskit Pali
Pālī
Sauraseni
Śaurasenī
Maharashtri
Mahāraṣṭrī
Magadhi
Māgadhī
Gandhari
Gāndhārī
Elu
Eḷu
1 I अहम् (aham) ahaṃ 𑀅𑀳𑀁 (ahaṃ) 𑀅𑀳𑀅𑀁 (ahaäṃ) 𑀳𑀕𑁂 (hage) 𐨀𐨱 (aha) [[]]
2 thou
(singular)
त्वम् (tvam) [[]] tuvaṃ 𑀢𑀼𑀫𑀁 (tumaṃ) [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
3 he (sa) [[]] sa 𑀲𑁄 (so) [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
4 we वयम् (vayam) [[]] amhe 𑀅𑀫𑁆𑀳𑁂 (amhe) [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
5 you
(plural)
यूयम् (yūyam) [[]] tumhe 𑀢𑀼𑀫𑁆𑀳𑁂 (tumhe) [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
6 they ते (te), साः (sāḥ), तानि (tāni) [[]] te 𑀢𑁂 (te) [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
7 this इदम् (idam) [[]] sa 𑀅𑀅𑀁 (aaṃ), 𑀇𑀅𑀁 (iaṃ), 𑀇𑀤𑀁 (idaṃ) [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
8 that तत् (tat) [[]] tad [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
9 here अत्र (atra) [[]] idha 𑀅𑀢𑁆𑀢 (atta) [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
10 there तत्र (tatra) [[]] tattha 𑀢𑀢𑁆𑀢 (tatta) [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
11 who (ka) [[]] ka 𑀓𑁄 (ko) [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
12 what किम् (kim) [[]] kiṃ 𑀓𑀺𑀁 (kiṃ), 𑀓𑀥𑀁 (kadhaṃ) [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
13 where कुत्र (kutra) [[]] kattha 𑀓𑀳𑀺𑀁 (kahiṃ) [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
14 when कदा (kadā) [[]] kadā [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
15 how कथम् (katham) [[]] kathaṃ 𑀓𑀥𑀁 (kadhaṃ) [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
16 not (na) [[]] na 𑀦 (na) [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
17 all सर्व (sarva) [[]] sabba [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
18 many बहु (bahu) [[]] bahu [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
19 some किञ्चिद् (kiñcid) [[]] kiñci [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
20 few अल्प (alpa) [[]] appa [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
21 other अन्य (anya) [[]] añña [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
22 one एक (eka) [[]] eka [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
23 two द्वि (dvi) [[]] dvi [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
24 three त्रि (tri) [[]] tayo [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
25 four चतुर् (catur) [[]] catur [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
26 five पञ्ज (pañja) [[]] pañca [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
27 big महत् (mahat) [[]] mahant [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
28 long दीर्घ (dīrgha) [[]] dīgha [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
29 wide उरु (uru) [[]] uru [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
30 thick घन (ghana) [[]] bahala [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
31 heavy गुरु (guru) [[]] garu [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
32 small अल्प (alpa) [[]] khudda [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
33 short ह्रस्व (hrasva) [[]] rassa [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
34 narrow अंहु (aṃhu) [[]] sambhada [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
35 thin तनु (tanu) [[]] tanu [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
36 woman स्त्री (strī) [[]] itthī [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
37 man
(adult male)
नर (nara) [[]] nara [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
38 man
(human being)
मनुष्य (manuṣya) [[]] jana [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
39 child
(a youth)
बाल (bāla) [[]] bālaka [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
40 wife भार्या॑ (bhāryā॑) [[]] jāni [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
41 husband पति (pati) [[]] pati [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
42 mother मातृ (mātṛ) [[]] mātar [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
43 father पितृ (pitṛ) [[]] pitar [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
44 animal पशु (paśu) [[]] miga [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
45 fish मत्स्य (matsya) [[]] maccha [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
46 bird वि (vi) [[]] pakkhi, vaya [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
47 dog श्वानः (śvānaḥ) [[]] suvana [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
48 louse यूका (yūkā) [[]] ūkā [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
49 snake सर्प (sarpa) [[]] sappa [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
50 worm कृमि (kṛmi) [[]] kimi [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
51 tree तरु (taru),वृक्ष (vṛkṣa) [[]] rukkha [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
52 forest वन (vana) [[]] vana [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
53 stick
(of wood)
दण्ड (daṇḍa) [[]] daṇḍa [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
54 fruit फल (phala) [[]] phala [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
55 seed भीज (bhīja) [[]] bīja [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
56 leaf पत्त्र (pattra) [[]] patti [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
57 root मूल (mūla) [[]] mūla [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
58 bark
(of tree)
त्वच् (tvac) [[]] taca [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
59 flower पुष्प (puṣpa) [[]] puppha [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
60 grass तृण (tṛṇa) [[]] tiṇa [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
61 rope रज्जु (rajju) [[]] rajju [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
62 skin
(of a person)
चर्मन् (carman) [[]] camma [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
63 meat
(as in flesh)
मांस (māṃsa) [[]] maṃsa [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
64 blood असृज् (asṛj) [[]] lohita [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
65 bone अस्थि (asthi) [[]] aṭṭhi [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
66 fat
(noun)
मेदस् (medas), पीवस् (pīvas) [[]] meda [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
67 egg अण्ड (aṇḍa) [[]] aṇḍa [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
68 horn शृङ्ग (śṛṅga) [[]] singa [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
69 tail पुच्छ (puccha) [[]] puccha [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
70 feather
(rather not down)
पुच्छ (puccha) [[]] paṇṇa, patta [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
71 hair केश (keśa) [[]] kesa [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
72 head शिरस् (śiras) [[]] sira [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
73 ear कर्ण (karṇa) [[]] kaṇṇa [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
74 eye अक्षि (akṣi) [[]] akkhi [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
75 nose नासिक (nāsika) [[]] nāsā [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
76 mouth मुख (mukha) [[]] mukha [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
77 tooth
(rather not molar)
दन्त (danta) [[]] danta [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
78 tongue जिह्वा (jihvā) [[]] jivhā [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
79 fingernail नख (nakha) [[]] nakha [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
80 foot पद (pada) [[]] pāda [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
81 leg जङ्घ (jaṅgha) [[]] janghā [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
82 knee जानु (jānu) [[]] jānu [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
83 hand हस्त (hasta) [[]] hattha [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
84 wing पक्ष (pakṣa) [[]] pakkha [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
85 belly उदर (udara) [[]] udara [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
86 guts गुद (guda) [[]] antavaṭṭi [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
87 neck कण्ठ (kaṇṭha) [[]] gīva [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
88 back पृष्ठ (pṛṣṭha) [[]] piṭṭha [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
89 breast स्तन (stana) [[]] thana [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
90 heart हृदय (hṛdaya) [[]] hadaya [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
91 liver यकृत् (yakṛt) [[]] yakana [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
92 to drink पिबति (pibati) [[]] pivati [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
93 to eat अत्ति (atti) [[]] adeti [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
94 to bite दंशति (daṃśati) [[]] ḍasati [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
95 to suck धयति (dhayati) [[]] cūsati [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
96 to spit ष्ठीव्यति (ṣṭhīvyati) [[]] oṭṭhubhati [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
97 to vomit वमति (vamati) [[]] vamati [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
98 to blow
(as wind)
वाति (vāti) [[]] dhamati [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
99 to breathe अनिति (aniti) [[]] sasati [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
100 to laugh हसति (hasati) [[]] hasati [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
101 to see पश्यति (paśyati) [[]] dakkhati [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
102 to hear शृणोति (śṛṇoti) [[]] suṇāti [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
103 to know
(a fact)
जानाति (jānāti) [[]] jānāti [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
104 to think चिन्तयति (cintayati) [[]] cinteti [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
105 to smell
(sense odor)
जिघ्रति (jighrati) [[]] gandha [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
106 to fear बिभेति (bibheti) [[]] dara [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
107 to sleep स्वपिति (svapiti) [[]] supati [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
108 to live जीवति (jīvati) [[]] jīvati [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
109 to die म्रियते (mriyate) [[]] marati [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
110 to kill हन्ति (hanti) [[]] māreti [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
111 to fight युध्यते (yudhyate) [[]] yodheti [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
112 to hunt
(transitive)
मृगयते (mṛgayate) [[]] migava [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
113 to hit हन्ति (hanti) [[]] abhihanati [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
114 to cut कृन्तति (kṛntati) [[]] karati [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
115 to split भिनत्ति (bhinatti) [[]] bhindati [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
116 to stab
(or stick)
विधति (vidhati) [[]] chūriyāhanati [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
117 to scratch
(an itch)
लिखति (likhati) [[]] likhati [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
118 to dig खनति (khanati) [[]] khaṇati [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
119 to swim प्लवते (plavate) [[]] pilavati [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
120 to fly पतति (patati) [[]] uḍḍeti [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
121 to walk गच्छति (gacchati) [[]] carati [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
122 to come आगच्छति (āgacchati) [[]] āyāti, āgacchati [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
123 to lie
(as on one's side)
शेते (śete) [[]] seti [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
124 to sit सीदति (sīdati) [[]] nisīdati [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
125 to stand तिष्ठति (tiṣṭhati) [[]] tiṭṭhati [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
126 to turn
(change direction)
वर्तते (vartate) [[]] vaṭṭati [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
127 to fall
(as in drop)
पद्यते (padyate) [[]] patati [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
128 to give ददाति (dadāti) [[]] dadāti [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
129 to hold
(in one's hand)
धरति (dharati) [[]] dharati [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
130 to squeeze मृद्नाति (mṛdnāti) [[]] nippīḷeti [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
131 to rub घर्षति (gharṣati) [[]] ghaṃsati [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
132 to wash क्षालयति (kṣālayati) [[]] dhopati [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
133 to wipe मार्ष्टि (mārṣṭi) [[]] majjati [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
134 to pull कर्षति (karṣati) [[]] khaḍḍati [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
135 to push नुदति (nudati) [[]] nudati [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
136 to throw क्षिपति (kṣipati) [[]] khipati [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
137 to tie बध्नाति (badhnāti) [[]] bandhati [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
138 to sew सीव्यति (sīvyati) [[]] sibbati [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
139 to count गणयति (gaṇayati) [[]] gaṇeti [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
140 to say वक्ति (vakti) [[]] vatti [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
141 to sing गायति (gāyati) [[]] gāyati [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
142 to play दीव्यति (dīvyati) [[]] kīḷati [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
143 to float प्लवते (plavate) [[]] palavati [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
144 to flow क्षरति (kṣarati) [[]] dhāvati [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
145 to freeze शीयते (śīyate) [[]] sīyati [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
146 to swell श्वयति (śvayati) [[]] phāti [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
147 sun सूर्य (sūrya) [[]] suriya [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
148 moon चन्द्रमस् (candramas) [[]] canda [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
149 star स्तृ (stṛ) [[]] tārakā [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
150 water जल (jala) [[]] jala, āpa [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
151 rain वर्ष (varṣa) [[]] vassa [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
152 river नदी (nadī) [[]] nadī [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
153 lake सरस् (saras) [[]] sara [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
154 sea
(as in ocean)
उदधि (udadhi) [[]] samudda [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
155 salt लवण (lavaṇa) [[]] loṇa [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
156 stone अश्मन् (aśman) [[]] asama [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
157 sand शिकता (śikatā) [[]] sikatā [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
158 dust रेणु (reṇu) [[]] reṇu [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
159 earth
(as in soil)
पृथिवी (pṛthivī) [[]] bhūmi [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
160 cloud मेघ (megha), नभस् (nabhas) [[]] megha [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
161 fog मिह् (mih) [[]] mahikā [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
162 sky आकाश (ākāśa) [[]] akāsa [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
163 wind
(as in breeze)
वात (vāta) [[]] vāta [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
164 snow हिम (hima) [[]] hima [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
165 ice हिम (hima) [[]] phāti [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
166 smoke धूम (dhūma) [[]] dhūma [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
167 fire अग्नि (agni) [[]] aggi [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
168 ashes आस (āsa) [[]] bhasma [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
169 to burn
(intransitive)
दहति (dahati) [[]] dahati [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
170 road मार्ग (mārga) [[]] patha magga [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
171 mountain गिरि (giri), पर्वत (parvata) [[]] pabbata giri [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
172 red रोहित (rohita) [[]] lohita [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
173 green हरित (harita) [[]] hari [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
174 yellow पीत (pīta) [[]] pīta [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
175 white श्वेत (śveta) [[]] sukka [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
176 black कृष्ण (kṛṣṇa) [[]] kanha [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
177 night रात्र (rātra) [[]] ratti [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
178 day
(daytime)
द्यु (dyu), अहर् (ahar) [[]] diva, aṇha [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
179 year वर्ष (varṣa), संवत्सर (saṃvatsara) [[]] vassa sanvacchara [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
180 warm
(as in weather)
तप्त (tapta), घर्म (gharma) [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
181 cold
(as in weather)
शीत (śīta) [[]] sīta [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
182 full पूर्ण (pūrṇa) [[]] puṇṇa [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
183 new नव (nava) [[]] nava [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
184 old वृद्ध (vṛddha) [[]] vuḍḍha [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
185 good वसु (vasu) [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
186 bad पाप (pāpa) [[]] pāpa [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
187 rotten
(as a log)
पूति (pūti) [[]] pūtika [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
188 dirty मलिन (malina) [[]] malina [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
189 straight ऋजु (ṛju) [[]] ujju [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
190 round वर्तुल (vartula) [[]] guḷa [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
191 sharp
(as a knife)
तीक्ष्ण (tīkṣṇa) [[]] tikkha [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
192 dull
(as a knife)
कुण्ठ (kuṇṭha) [[]] kuṇtha [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
193 smooth श्लक्ष्ण (ślakṣṇa) [[]] saṇha [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
194 wet आर्द्र (ārdra) [[]] adda [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
195 dry
(adjective)
शुष्क (śuṣka) [[]] sukkha [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
196 right
(correct)
शुद्ध (śuddha) [[]] utu [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
197 near नेद (neda) [[]] antika [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
198 far दूर (dūra) [[]] dūra [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
199 right
(side)
दक्षिण (dakṣiṇa) [[]] dakhiṇa [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
200 left
(side)
सव्य (savya) [[]] vāma [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
201 at - [[]] - [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
202 in - [[]] antara [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
203 with
(accompanying)
सह (saha) [[]] saha [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
204 and (ca) [[]] ca [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
205 if यदि (yadi) [[]] yadi [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
206 because हि (hi) [[]] yāvatā [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]
207 name नामन् (nāman) [[]] nāma [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]] [[]]