Appendix:Old Saxon verbs

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Old Saxon verbs[edit]

Strong verbs Weak verbs
Conjugation Pronoun 'to ride' 'to fly' 'to help' 'to break' 'to speak' 'to travel' 'to wield' 'to deem' 'to declare' 'to say'
Infinitive rīdan fliogan helpan brekan sprekan faran waldan dōmian mahlon seggian
Present indicative
ik rīdu fliugu hilpu briku spriku faru waldu dōmiu mahlo(n) seggiu
thū rīdis fliugis hilpis brikis sprikis feris weldis dōmis mahlos sages
hē/it/siu rīdid fliugid hilpid brikid sprikid ferid weldid dōmid mahlod saged
wī/gī/sia rīdad fliogad helpad brekad sprekad farad waldad dōmiad mahliod seggiad
Past indicative
ik rēd flōg halp brak sprak fōr wēld dōmda mahloda sagda
thū ridi flugi hulpi brāki sprāki fōri wēldi dōmdes mahlodes sagdes
hē/it/siu rēd flōg halp brak sprak fōr wēld dōmda mahloda sagda
wī/gī/sia ridun flugun hulpun brākun sprākun fōrun wēldun dōmdun mahlodun sagdun
Present subjunctive
ik rīde flioge helpe breke spreke fare walde dōmie mahlo seggie
thū rīdes flioges helpes brekes sprekes fares waldes dōmies mahlos seggies
hē/it/siu rīde flioge helpe breke spreke fare walde dōmie mahlo seggie
wī/gī/sia rīden fliogen helpen breken spreken faren walden dōmien mahlion seggien
Past subjunctive
ik ridi flugi hulpi brāki sprāki fōri wēldi dōmdi mahlodi sagdi
thū ridis flugis hulpis brākis sprākis fōris wēldis dōmdis mahlodis sagdis
hē/it/siu ridi flugi hulpi brāki sprāki fōri wēldi dōmdi mahlodi sagdi
wī/gī/sia ridin flugin hulpin brākin sprākin fōrin wēldin dōmdin mahlodin sagdin
Imperative Singular rīd fliog help brek sprek far wald dōmi mahlo sage
Plural rīdad fliogad helpad brekad sprekad farad waldad dōmiad mahliod seggiad
Present participle rīdandi fliogandi helpandi brekandi sprekandi farandi waldandi dōmiandi mahlondi seggiandi
Past participle (gi)ridan (gi)flogan (gi)holpan (gi)brokan (gi)sprekan (gi)faran (gi)waldan (gi)dōmid (gi)mahlod (gi)sagd

Old Saxon preterite-present verbs[edit]

Conjugation Pronoun 'know how to' 'be able to' 'be obliged' 'to know' 'own' 'to avail' 'dare to do' 'to remember' 'to need' 'be allowed' 'allow' 'have use of'
Infinitives kunnan mugan skulan witan ēgan dugan (gi-)durran far-munan thurƀan mōtan gi-unnan *ginugan
Present Indicative
ik kan mag, mah skal wēt ēh dōg, dōh gidar far-man tharf mōt gi-an ginah
thū kanst maht skalt wēst ēhst *dōht *(gi)darst far-manst tharft mōst gi-anst *ginaht
hē/it/siu kan mag, mah skal wēt ēh dōg, dōh gidar far-man þearf mōt gi-an ginah
wī/gī/sia kunnun mugun skulun witun ēgun dugun (gi)durrun *far-munun thurƀun mōtun *gi-unnun *ginugun
Past Indicative
ik konsta mohta skolda wissa ēhta dohta (gi)dorsta far-monsta thorfta mōsta gi-onsta *ginohta
thū konstes mohtes skoldes wisses ēhtes *dohtes *(gi)dorstes *far-monstes thorftes mōstes *gi-onstes *ginohtes
hē/it/siu konsta mohta skolda wissa ēhta dohta (gi)dorsta far-monsta thorfta mōsta gi-onsta *ginohta
wī/gī/sia konstun mohtun skoldun wissun ēhtun *dohtun (gi)dorstun far-monstun thorftun mōstun *gi-onstun *ginohtun
Present subjunctive
ik kunni mugi skuli witi ēgi dugi *(gi)durri far-muni thurƀi mōti *gi-unni *ginugi
thū kunnis mugis skulis witis ēgis *dugis *(gi)durris *far-munis thurƀis mōtis *gi-unnis *ginugis
hē/it/siu kunni mugi skuli witi ēgi dugi *(gi)durri far-muni thurƀi mōti *gi-unni *ginugi
wī/gī/sia kunnin mugin skulin witin ēgin *dugin *(gi)durrin far-munin thurƀin mōtin *gi-unnin *ginugin
Past subjunctive
ik konsti mohti skoldi wissi ēhti *dohti gidorsti far-monsti thorfti mōsti *gi-onsti *ginohti
thū konstis mohtis skoldis wissis ēhtis *dohtis *(gi)dorstis *far-monstis thorftis mōstis *gi-onstis *ginohtis
hē/it/siu konsti mohti skoldi wissi ēhti *dohti gidorsti far-monsti thorfti mōsti *gi-onsti *ginohti
wī/gī/sia konstin mohtin skoldin wissin ēhtin *dohtin gidorstin *far-monstin thorftin mōstin *gi-onstin *ginohtin

[Forms above with asterisk (*) unattested.]

Anomalous verbs[edit]

Conjugation Pronoun 'do' 'go' 'stand' 'will'
Infinitive dōn gān stān willian
Present indicative
ik dōm *stā williu
thū dēs gēs stēs wilt, wilis
hē/it/siu dēd gēd stēd wili
wī/gī/hīe dōd gād stād williad
Past indicative
ik/hē/it/siu deda geng stōd welda
thū dedes gengi stōdi weldes
wī/gī/sia dedun gengun stōdun weldun
Present subjunctive
ik/hē/it/siu dō(e) gā(e) stā(e) willie
thū dō(e)s gā(e) stā(e)s willies
wī/gī/sia dō(e)n gā(e)n stā(e)n willien
Past subjunctive
ik/hē/it/siu dedi gengi stōdi weldi
thū dedis gengis stōdis weldis
wī/gī/sia dedin gengin stōdin weldin
Present participle dōndi gānde stānde willende
Past participle (gi)dān (gi)gangan (gi)standan

The verb 'to be' is actually composed of three different stems:

Conjugation Pronoun s-stem b-stem w-stem
Infinitive sīn *bion? wesan
Present indicative
ik *em bium wisu
thū *art bis(t) wisis
hē/it/siu is(t) *bid wis(id)
wī/gī/sia sind(un) *biod wesad
Past indicative
ik was
thū wāri
hē/it/siu was
wī/gī/sia wārun
Present subjunctive
ik/thū/hē/it/siu sī(e) wese
wī/gī/sia sī(e)n wesen
Past subjunctive
ik/thū/hē/it/siu wāri
wī/gī/sia wārin
Imperative
(singular) wis, wes
(plural) wesad
Present participle wesandi
Past participle (gi)wesan