Appendix:Proto-Ainu reconstructions

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The following list of reconstructed Proto-Ainu forms is from Vovin (1993: 77-154).

Abbreviations[edit]

  • L: low accent
  • H: high accent
  • J: Japanese
  • PJ: Proto-Japanese
  • OJ: Old Japanese
  • EMJ: Early Middle Japanese

List[edit]

Proto-Ainu Accent pattern Gloss Notes Page
*a=d[E]=hdan= seven (lit. “three-ten”) 77
*á[t/C]=dùs H-L “a kind of cloth *
*aa “to sit” (sing.)
*áà-nÈ HL-L “to be thin (and round)”
*ààtyá LLH father
*ad “to assemble
*àgì LL arrow
*àgù LL tongue
*àgú= LH “to enter
*àk L younger brother
*àm L fingernail
*àmá LH “to take off *
*àmúrnìn LHL “(fore)arm
*an=, *a= I (folklore texts)
*an “to be born
*an “to be, to exist, to dwell” (sing.)
*àn= L “to hold (in one’s arms)”
*an night
*ànún LH stranger, outsider
*àpà LL doorway
*àpÉ (<*apOy ?) LH fire
*ápkàs HL “to walk *
*áptÒ HL rain
*áqù HL next, neighbour
*ár(=)tÈ (*ár=dÈ ?) H-L “to hang (it)”
*árkà HL painful, sore, hurting
*árkì HL “to come” (plur.)
*as “to stand (up)” (sing.)
*às=í L-H “to close (it)”
*àsír LH “to be new
*áskày HL “to be skillful, to be able
*áskÈ HL hand *
*áskì HL five (*asik LH)
*ásnàp HL paddle
*at w:Ulmus laciniata” (“elm tree”)
*àtú LH “to vomit
*àtùsá LLH naked, bare
*àtùy LL sea
*atya (accent pattern is not clear) uncle
*ày L thorn (< *agi LL if related to *agi “arrow”)
*áykàp HL “to be unskillful, to be unable
*áynù HL person, man (in general)” (< *a(n)=inu ?) *
*Àm=á (< *Àm=ú) L-H “to put (it)” (sing.)
*Am=dE “to put (it)” (plur.)
*Àm(=)Ám L(-)H rice
*Àp L ice drift
*ÀsÀm LL bottom, depths
*Àt L string, cord
*dáàràk HLL smooth
*dáy H “to die *
*dE= three
*dÉÈ HL name
*dÉÈrà HLL wind
*dÈ=kùt L-L neck
*dÈ(=)tár L(-)H white
*dù=p L ice
*dùs L skin, fur
*È= L you” (sing.) *
*È=ák L-H “to shoot
*È=kán=hÒk L-H-L “to go out to meet a person on his way
*È(=)qÉn (*È(=)gÉn ?) L(-)H “to be sharp-pointed
*È=rùsá L-LH “to lend, to loan
*È=sì(=)kár(=)ùn L-L(-)H(-)L “to recall (it), to remember (it), to recollect (it)”
*È=sììná L-LLH “to conceal, to keep secret
*E=sOO “to borrow
*È=tày= L-L “to pull *
*È(=)tín(=)kÈ LHL tortoise
*È=tún L-H “to borrow
*EE “to eat (it)”
*Eg “to come” (sing.)
*Èkàsí (*Èkàgí/*Èkàhí ?) LLH old man, grandfather
*ÉmkÒ HL half
*Èmùs LL sword
*Èpá LH “to arrive, to reach
*Èpìr[V̀] LL[L] knife
*Èpúy LH sprout, bud, flower
*ÈrÈkús (*èrèkús ?) LLH cod fish *
*Érúm HH mouse
*Èsàmán LLH otter
*Ésnà HL sneeze
*Ètì= LL you” (plur.)
*ÈtÒp LL hair
*Ètù LL nose
*ga=ita not enough, lacking
*gáá(=)pÒ HH(-)L mother (*=pO may be a suffix)
*gáàtìr HLL “to fall (down)” *
*gán=kÈ H-L “to be near
*gÁnkù HL navel
*gàqù LL voice
*gár=kè H-L left
*=gáytà HL “to make a mistake
*gÉÈsÈ HLL “to breathe
*gÈm=án=tà (*hÈmántà ?) L-H-L what
*gEm=pa=ra when
*gEm=pak=pE how many
*gik/*gek “to be born *
*gík(=)nù (*sík(=)nù/*hík(=)nù ?) H-L “to be alive, to live
*gìk(=)úp (*sìk(=)úp/*hìk(=)úp ?) L-H “to grow up
*gìtá LH dog (< *LL ? cf. accent in KK)
*gOk “to buy
*gOm knot, joint (of bamboo)”
*gÒn L belly, stomach
*gOOr=nE “to be loose
*góp=nÈ H-L “to be narrow
*gÒqínù LHL marten *
*gÓr(=)kà H(-)L “to be inverted, to be upside down
*gÓr(=)kÈqù H(=)LL wolf
*gÓr=sÈ H-L “to rot, to decay, rotten
*gÓs(=)kì= H(-)L before, previous
*gOt twenty
*gÓt=kÈ H-L “to lie down
*gÓtkù HL “to stoop
*gú H “to be living (of a plant)”
*gùm L sound, noise
*gún(=)pÈ H(-)L whale *
*gun=pa “to chop (it), to mince (it)”
*gùnÀr= LL “to seek (it), to look for
*gú[n]nà HL who
*gùp L “to swell, swelling
*gúr H mountain, hill
*gúrá HH smell
*gúrtì HL old woman, grandmother
*gúskÒ HL “to be old
*guu “to be raw, to be fresh
•gúùrÈ HLL red
*gùy (? *hùy) L cheek of the fish *
*hàpúr LH “to be weak, to be soft
*hàrám LH lizard
*hàyÓk=pÈ LH-L armour
*hdák=kà HL water
*hdán= H ten
*hdàtàrá LLH stone, cliff
*hdEn “to be bad
*hdOO span of the thumb and first finger
*hÈkàtí LLH child
*h[È/è]má(=)kà (*g[È/è]má(=)kà ?) LH(-)L “to end *
*hÈmÓy LH trout
*hÈpÉr LH bear cub
*hÈrÒkí LLH herring
*hO pubic area” (?)
*hÒ(=)rip= L(-)H/L(-)L (?) “to dance
*hÒ(=)rÓp[=sÈ] LH[-L] “to sip (loudly)”
*hÒ=kús L-H “to fall
*hÒ=pùn=í L-L-H “to fly, to get up” (sing.)
*hÒ=pún=pà L-H-L “to fly, to get up” (plur.)
*hÒ=rá=k L-H “to fall (from hO= + ra “down, under” + =k)
*hÒ=sìp= (*hÒ=gìp=/*hÒ=hìp= ?) L-L “to come/go home *
*hÒ=yùp= L-L “to run
*hÒkù LL husband
*hÒmá (*gÒmá ?) LH spawn
*hÒmár LH “to be vague, to be faint
*hÒtùy= LL “to call, to shout
*hrÀ= L leaf
*hrúp H “(white) fir, coniferous tree *
*hur bamboo grass
*Hàm L claw
*Háspà HL deaf
*HÉ(=)sÈ HL “to consent to, to comply with
*HÓn=tàrÒ (*Hón=tàrò ?) H-LL barrel (< J taru “barrel”)
*Húpsì (*Húpgì/*Húphì ?) HL lacquer (? < J urusi “lacquer”)
*Húùràr HLL fog
*i=Ak(=)a “to show, to point to”
*ì=Àk=ú L-L-H “to crash, to smash
*ì=As= L “to tear (it), to split (it)” *
*ì=ÉÈ L-HL “to say (it)”
*ì=kásmà L-HL “to be in excess, to remain, to be left over
*ì=kÒn=í L-L-H “to fall (seriously) ill
*í=n[ù]=kàr H-(L)-L “to be seen
*ì=nùú L-LH “to be heard
*ì=Òn=í L-L-H “to draw (it) back, to withdraw
*ì=ùp= L-L “to tighten (it)”
*ii=hdan= six (lit “four-ten”) *
*íì=nÈ= HL-L four
*ihdagu sulphur
*íhkà HL “to steal
*ík H waist
*ik hundred
*ìk L joint (of bamboo)”
*ík=màqù=rè H-LL-L belch
*ìkús(=)pÈ LH(-)L pillar
*ìmà(=)k L(-)L tooth
*ìmÈrú LLH lightning
*ìmÓ(=)k LH earthworm *
*ìmÒká LLH present, gift
*ìn[à]= L[L] which
*inaqu “to perform inau ritual
*ìnón(=)pÈ LH(-)L frame of a fireplace
*ìpÒr (*ìpÒd ?) LL color
*ír=nÈ H-L many (of people)”
*ìrÓr=nÈ (*ìrÓt=nÈ ?) LH-L “to be thick (and flat)”
*ìqÉÈ LHL pus
*ìs L bird's tail
*ìsÈpÓ LLH hare
*ìtá LH board (< J ita “board”)
*ìtà(=)k LL language, word, to speak, to talk *
*ìtánkì LHL wooden bowl
*ityaniqu trout
*kà L on, above (J ue)
*káà HL cord, thread, yarn
*kaa trap
*káání HHH metal (< OJ kane HH)
*kààrì=p LLL wheel, ring, hoop
*káásì=qù HHL-L “to help
*kàkká LH vulva *
*kàm L meat
*kàmúy LH god (< OJ kamiy or PJ *kamu=i “god”)
*kánkàn HL intestines
*kántÒ HL heaven, sky
*kÀp L skin, fur (? < OJ kaFa or PJ *kapa)
*kàp=ár L-H “to be thin (and flat)”
*kàpá(=)p LH bat
*kàpíqù LHL seagull
*kaqu=kaqu sleet, hail
*kar (< *kii=yar ?) “to make
*kar “to peel (it)” *
*kar “to pick, to nip, to pluck
*kàr= L “to roll over, to turn around
*kárkù HL nephew
*kàrús LH mushroom
*kàsúp LH ladle
*kày L “to break (of a long thing)” (*kay=i L-H “to break a long thing”)
*kay “to carry piggyback
*kàyá LH sail
*kEE oil (as food), fat *
*kÉÈ[qù] HL[L] “to shave (it), to whittle (it), to plane (it)”
*kÉÈrà HLL taste
*kÈm L blood
*kEm “to lick
*kèm L needle
*kÈmà LL foot, leg
*kÈn (*kèn ?) L sprout, bud
*kEqu (*kequ ?) uncle, elder male relative
*kEqu bone
*kèr L footwear
*kÈ=s L end *
*kEs= every
*kÈsùp (*kèsùp ?) LL heel
*kÈtá LH star
*ki louse
*ki reed
*kii “to do
*kììkí LLH “to scratch (it)” (< *kii=kii ?)
*kik “to hit, to beat *
*kìkí(=)r LH worm, insect, bug
*kim mountain
*kìná LH “(edible) grass
*kìp=ùtúr L-LH forehead
*kìr L marrow
*kìrá LH “to run away, to flee
*kì(=)ràqú LLH horn
*kìrày LL comb
*kìrÓr (*kìròr ?) LH (LL ?) strength
*kírp̀u HL fat, grease
*kìsÀr LL ear *
*kísmà HL “to seize, to catch
*kìtáy LH roof
*kìtáy LH summit, peak
*kï̀r=ú L-H “to turn (it) toward
*kÒ=kÒ L-L son-in-law, elder sister's husband
*kÓ(=)s H daughter-in-law, elder brother's wife
*kÒ=r L “to have *
*kÒ[Ò]=C=dÉ L[L]-H “to give (lit. “to make have”)
*kÓkkà HL knee
*kOm (*kom ?) oak
*kOmta (*komta ?) elbow
*kÓn=sùm HL foam, bubble
*kÓntì HL hat
*kÓs=nÈ H-L “to be light (not heavy)”
*kÒ=sún=kÈ L-H-L “to deceive
*kÒt L traces, marks
*kOt= front, before *
*kÒtàn LL village, country
*kOy wave
*kòy L urine
*kÓy(=)kì H(-)L “to tease, to torment, to scold, to hunt
*kö̀t= L “to tie (it) to, to fasten (it) to”
*kù= L I
*kùhdá LH cane, walking stick
*kùmá LH “(bamboo) pole *
*kùmì LL mold
*kùnkí LH nail (< J kugi “nail”)
*kúp H shoulder
*kùpá LH “to bite
*kùr L shadow
*kur person, man (in general)”
*kúr= H black (? < OJ kurwo= “black”)
*kúrkì HL gills
*kus “to pass, to go through
*kùt L waistband, belt *
*kùtá LH “to spill (it)”
*kùtyán LH female bear
*kùú LH bow
*kuu “to drink (it)”
*kuy “to chew
*kúy(=)tÒ=p HL wild goose
*má=k H inside
*maa “to roast
*maa “to swim *
*màkìrí LLH knife
*máqù=s=Òk HL-L yawn
*màt L woman, wife
*màtà LL winter
*mE(=)k/*mi(=)k “to bark
*mEE= “to be cold
*më̀s= L “to pick, to nip, to pluck
*më̀s= L “to peel (it)”
*mii “to put on clothes *
*míìnà HLL “to laugh
*mìm L meat (of fish)”
*mit grandchild
*mítì HL father
*mÒ L (?) world, land, island, country” (?)
*mÒ L sleep
*mÒ(=)yúk L(-)H tanuki, raccoon dog
*mOm “to flow
*mOn (*mon ?) hand
*mÓn(=)rÈ H(-)L “to be late (at night), to come late, to be slow *
*mÒs L “a fly
*mÓsmà HL other (than), besides, (anything) else
*mOy (*moy ?) eddy, whirlpool
*mOy inlet, bay
*mOy= “to move, to be in motion
*mÒyÓ LH few, little
*m[r]Ák= H “to open (it)”
*mùkár LH axe *
*múkkù HL flute, pipe
*mun “(inedible) grass
*mun trash, rubbish
*mùnín LH “to rot, to decay, rotten
*muy winnow (< PJ *mui)
*nà(=)ní L(-)H at once, immediately
*nÀn L face
*nàqá LH still
*nàtá LH hatchet (< J nata “hatchet”) *
*nay stream, river
*nÈÉ= LH who, what
*nÉskÒ HL walnut tree
*nÈtÓ LH calm, lull
*nii “to sip
*nii tooth
*nii tree
*níì(=)nùm HL(-)L “(wal)nut (lit. “tree's fruit” ?)
*níìsù HLL mortar, handmill
*nìmàrá LLH half, part (of something)” *
*nin “to decrease, to diminish
*nìn= L “to drag
*nís H sky, cloud
*nìs= L “to be strong, to be hard
*nìs= L “to draw (water), to ladle, to dip
*nìsàp LL shin
*nìs(=)át L(-)H dawn
*níspà HL rich man *
*nìt L handle
*nï̀n=ú L-H “to sew
*nÒk L testicles, egg
*nÒkà LL picture, drawing, form, shape
*nÒkÓ LH saw (< J noko=giri “saw”)
*nÒn L saliva
*nÒná LH sea urchin, sea chestnut
*nOOti(=)qu star
*nÓqì=pÈ HLL brain
*nÓrnÒ HL flower *
*nOrnO/*narna mother
*nÓs=kì H-L middle, center
*nÓs=pà H-L “to pursue, to chase
*nÓt H chin, jaw
*nÒtÁk LH cutting edge
*nOy= temple
*nö́m(=)í H(-)H “to hold a festival, to perform memorial duties
*nö̀y= L “to twist *
*nu “to ask
nù=kár L-H “to see, to look at
*nùm L fruit, berry, to bear fruit
*nùm L grain, granule, ball
*nùm= L “to squeeze
*núm=kÈ H-L “to choose (it), to select (it)”
*nùmà LL hair
*nún=pÈ H-L paste, glue (? < Japanese nibe "glue made from swim bladders of fish, isinglass")
*nup field *
*núp(=)kì H(-)L “to get muddy
*nùpÈk LL light
*nùpùrí LLH mountain (< ? OJ no̱bo̱r=i HH-H)
*núù HL eye
*nuu “to hear, to listen
*núùmàn HLL yesterday
*núy=kàr H-L “to comb
*nuyna (< *nu=ina ?) “to hide (it), to conceal (it)”
*nǜy= L “to carve (it)” *
*nǜy= L “to sweep
*òpás LH snow
*ópsÓr HH bosom
*Ò(=)mán=dÈ L-H-L “to present, to make a present
*Ò=kÈ=dÉ L-L-H “to end
*Ò=kÈqú= L-LH “to expel, to drive out, to throw out
*Ò=sùr=á L-L-H “to throw away
*Ògá LH “to be empty *
*Ògák LH “to be shallow
*Ògàqú LLH soup, broth
*ÒgÓÒ LHL “to be deep
*Ók H nape, the back of the neck
*Òkáy LH “to be, to exist, to dwell” (plur.)
*Ókkày(Ò) HL(L) man, male
*Òm L thigh
*Óm=kÈ HL “to cough
*Òmá(=)p LH “to love, to like *
*Òmán LH “to go” (sing.)
*ÒmónpÈ LHL pants (J o=monpe “(women's) skirt pantaloons”)
*Òná (*òná ?) LH father
*Ónkàmì HLL “to worship (< NJ oNgamï “to worship”)
*Ónrà HL “to forget (it)”
*OO “to ride (it)”
*Òp L spear
*Òpít(=)tà/*Òpír=tà LH-L all
*Òr L inside (J naka)
*Ór=nÈ H-L “to be old (of age)”
*Ós=kÈ H-L “to knit, to weave *
*Ósmà=k HL back, behind
*ÒsÒr LL buttocks
*Ót=kÈ H-L “to poke (it)”
*Òtá LH sand
*Òyá= LH after, next
*Òyáqù LHL snake
*páà HL steam, smoke *
*pà L head
*páà HL year, age
*pá[a]=qìkàr HLL spring
*paa “to find (it)”
*páàkàrì HLLL “to measure (it), to weigh (it)” (< MJ Fakar-i LL-L)
*paar=aC=sE “to fly
*páàsÈ HLL “to be heavy
*pÁr= H “to fan
*pàrà=kí LL-H tick *
*pÀs L charcoal, cinders
*pás(=)kùr H(-)L crow
*pà[s]ná LH dust, dirt
*pàsùy LL chopsticks (< PJ *pasui)
*pàtÉk (*pàték ?) LH only
*pày=í L-H “to go” (plur.)
*pÉ H sap, water
*pÉqùrÈ HLL “to be young
*pÉkÈr HL “to be bright, to be light
*pÈr= L “to break or split (it) in two or pieces
*pÈrá LH “(rice) paddle (< EMJ Fera “spatula, (rice) paddle, scoop”)
*pÈráy LH “to fish with a line” (?)
*pEt river
*=pEt finger
*pë̀t=ú L-H “to cut, to split
*pii seed
*píìr=nÈ HL-L male
*pìr L wound
*pír(=)kà H(-)L “to be good
*pìrÀs(=)á LL(-)H “to spread (it) out *
*pís H seashore
*pís=kì (< *pís=kìi ?) H-L “to count
*pìsàkú LLH dipper (< MJ Fisaku “ladle”)
*pìsÉ LH stomach
*pìsí LH “to ask
*pìtá LH “to untie (it)”
*=pìtǘy= LH “to push
*pï̀r= L “to wipe
*pÒk L vulva
*pOn “to be small *
*pònÈ LL bone (< PJ *pone LL “bone”)
*pÓÒ HL son, child
*pÓp H sweat
*pOp “to boil, to grow hot
*pOqina stone
*pÒqÓn LH four” (?)
*pÒrÓ LH “to be big
*pÓrù HL cave (< ? MJ Fora HH)
*práá HH edge
*práák HH “to teach, to inform
*pran light, thin, insipid (colour, taste)” *
*prÀA= L mouth
*pras “to run
*prÒ=k L under, beneath, below (J sita)
*pùkùrú LLH bag (< OJ pukurwo “bag”)
*púnkàr HL vine
*púrí HH custom (< OJ Furi “custom”)
*pùtá LH cover, lid (< OJ Futa “lid”) *
*púù HL storehouse
*pùy L hole
*pùyár/*pùqár LH window
*rá (*dá ?) H liver
*rá H down (J sita=no kata)
*ra= (*da= ?) “to get clear
*ráà(=)rà[a]y= (*dáàrà[a]y=/*dáà(=)dà[a]y ?) HLL “to rub gently, to soothe
*ráànù= (*dáànù= ?) HLL “to love, to like *
*rak “to smell
*rákkÒ (*dákkÒ ?) HL sea otter
*rÀm L soul, heart, mind
*ram “to be low
*rÁm=rÀm H-L scales
*ránmà (*dánmà ?) HL always, usually
*rÀr L eyebrow
*ràt (? *dàt) L phlegm
*ràyòntí LLH rainbow
*rEk “to sing, to cry (of a bird)” *
*rE=n (*dE=n ?) “to sink
*rÉp (*dÉp ?) H offshore
*rÈqù= (*dÈqù= ?) LL “to bend (it)”
*rÉqùs(=)ì (*dÉqù[g/h](=)ì ?) HL(-)L “to stay (overnight)”
*rÈs= (*dÈs= ?) L “to bring up, to rear
*rEy= (*dEy= ?) LH “to creep, to crawl
*rí (*di ?) H “to skin, to strip
*rìk(=)án (*dìk(=)án ?) LH “to be damp, to get damp
*rìká (*dìká ?) LH whale('s meat)” *
*rím=sÈ (*dím=sÈ ?) H-L “to dance
*rir (*dir ?) wave
*ris= (*dis= ?) “to pick, to nip, to pluck
*=rit root
*rOk (*dOk ?) “to sit” (plur.)
*rÓr=nù (*dÓr=nò/*rÓr=nò/*dÓr=nù ?) H-L “to kill” (plur.)
*rÓs=kì HL “to stand (up)” (plur.)
*rù (*dù ?) L traces, marks
*rùp L shoal (*dup ?)
*rùqÉ/*rùgÉ (*duqE/*dugE ?) LH “to be thick (and round)” *
*rùr (*dùr ?) L soup, broth
*rur (*dur ?) the tide
*rúr=nù (*dúr=nù ?) H-L “to be salty
*rúrà (*dúrà ?) HL “to see off
*rús(=)kà (*dús(=)kà ?) H(-)L “to get angry
*ruu (*duu ?) “to melt
*rúùrà (*dúùrà ?) HLL “to carry
*ruy (*duy ?) whetstone
*ruy=ruy= (*duy=duy= ?) H “to rub gently, to soothe
*rúykà/*réqùkà (*dúykà/*déqùkà ?) HL/HLL bridge
*rǜk= (*dǜk= ?) L “to gulp down *
*sá H elder sister
*sá H head
*sa= “to be non-existent
*sa= “to come/go out (J deru)
*sàk L summer
*sàk=ì L-L trout
*sÀm L side *
*sán=pÈ H-L heart” (only as anatomical organ)
*sÀr L tail
*sar field of reeds
*sàrá LH “to appear, to come out
*sAs sea-tangle, kelp
*sát H “to dry, to be dry
*sày L flock
*sÉ́ H throat
*sEE “to carry on the back
*sÉÈsÈk HLL “to grow hot, to be hot
*sEm closet *
*sÉnpìr HL behind, shade
*sEp “to be broad
*sÈt L bed
*sÈt L nest
*sÈtùr LL back
*sÈy L shell(fish)”
*sí(=)yùk (*gí(=)yùk/*hí(=)yùk ?) H(-)L male bear
*sì=nÉ= (*gì=nÉ=/*hì=nÉ= ?) LH one
*si=nE=pE=hdan= nine (lit. “one-ten”)
*sii (*gii ?) dung, fecal matter (cf. o=so=ma “to void feces”) *
*síì (*gíì/*híì ?) HL right
*sìì=n[é/í] (*gìì=n[é/í]/*hìì=n[é/í] ?) LL-H “to rest
*síì=sÀm (*gíì=sàm/*híì=sàm ?) HLL foreigner (< sii “self” + sAm “side” ?)
*sik (*gik/*hik ?) “to be full
*sìk (*gìk/*hìk ?) L eye
*sík(=)kÈqù H(-)LL corner, edge, nook
*sìkáy/*tìkáy LH wooden nail
*sín=kì (*gín=kì/*hín=kì ?) H-L “to get tired *
*sinma/*siima tomorrow
*sìnÓt (*gìnÓt/*hìnÓt ?) LH game, to play
*sí(=)ntÒkÒ H(-)LL container
*sì(=)pÓp L(-)H box, case (*gipOp/*hipOp ?)
*síppÒ HL salt (< OJ sipo “salt”)
*sìpùyá (*gìpùyá/*hìpùyá ?) LLH smoke
*siqu “to be bitter
*síqùnìn (*gíqùnìn/*híqùnìn ?) HLL blue, green
*sir (*gir/*hir ?) weather
*sir (*gir/*hir ?) world, land, island, country *
*sìráqù (*gìráqù/*hìráqù ?) LHL horsefly, gadfly
*sìrár LH (*girar/*hirar ?) rock
*sírmà (*gírmà/*hírmà ?) HL dust, dirt
*sírnày (*gírnày/*hírnày ?) HL “to change
*sírtÒk (*gírtÒk/*hírtÒk ?) HL elbow
*sì(=)táy=kì L(-)H-L “to weave
*sìtÒmá LLH “to be afraid of” (*gitOma/*hitOma ?)
*sï̀n(=)á (*gï̀n(=)á/*hï̀n(=)á ?) L(-)H “to bind (it), to tie (it) up
*sḯr=ú (*gír=ú/*hír=ú ?) H-H (?) “to rub
*sO waterfall *
*sÓk(=)kàr H(-)L mat, rug
*sÓn=nÒ H-L indeed, really, truly
*sÓnkÒ HL news, information
*sÒs= L “to tear (it), to split (it)”
*sOy outside (J soto)
*sÒyá LH bee, wasp
*sù(=)gÈ (*sù(=)qÉ ?) L(-)H “to cook, to boil
*sù(=)kÉ L(-)H “to cook, to prepare
*sù(=)sú L(-)H willow
*sùm L oil (as food)” *
*sum “to droop, to wither
*sùmá LH stone
*sùmárì LHL fox
*sún(=)kÈ HL lie, to tell a lie
*sunE (accent is not clear) light, torch
*súnkù HL silver fir
*sùrá LH “to release, to let go
*súrkù HL poison
*suu pan
*sùy L hole
*sǜy=í L-H “to swing” (intr.), “to sway
*sǘy=í H-H “to shake, to wave *
*tà= L now
*tà= L this
*tÀk L lump, clod
*tak “to invite
*tak “to be short
*tàkár LH dream
*tántÒ HL today (< *ta “this” + an “to be” + tOO “day”)
*tàp L shoulder, upper arm
*tár=nÈ H-L “to be long *
*tàráp LH dream
*tas[p]a=dE LL “to change (it), to exchange (it)”
*tàsúm LH “to fall ill, to get sick
*táy=kì HL flea
*tÈ(=)k L hand, arm
*tÉÈrE ̀ HLL “to wait for
*tEm fathom
*tÈpà LL loincloth
*tÉr=kÈ HL “to jump
*tEy=nE “to get wet *
*tì= L bird
*tì= L we
*tíì HL “to wither
*tìí LH penis
*tii ripe, to grow ripe
*tii “to be cooked, to be done, to be roasted
*tìkír LH (*ti=kir ?) foot, leg
*tìkù= LL tree
*tín H waist
*tinita LLH dream
*tínkì HL skirt, bottom
*tìp L canoe *
*tiqa=tiqa fox
*tìqàr= LL “to scatter
*tíqàsì (*tíqàgì/*tíqàhì ?) HLL fence
*tìqÈp LL fish
*tìqù LL tide
*tiqu “to stab (it), to pierce (it)”
*tiqu(=)p the sun, the moon, month
*tis “to cry, to weep
*tìsÉ LH house
*tÒ= L that *
*tÓkkÒnì HLL snake
*tÓkkùrì HLL jug, bottle (< J tokkuri “bottle”, EMJ tokuri(go) “sake bottle”)
*tÒmá LH sweet potato, taro
*tÓn(=)rÈ H(-)L “to get wet
*tÓntÒ HL processed leather
*tOO day
*tÓÓ[C] HH breasts (of woman)”
*tOO lake
*tÓÒpÈn HLL sweet
*tOp bamboo
*tÒpà LL flock, herd
*tOy earth, soil, ground, land *
*tóp(=)sÈ H(-)L “to spit
*trÀp L feather
*trÈk L beard
*tri[i]=k up(per part)” (J ue=no kata)
*trii “to be high
*truu road
*tu ridge (of a mountain), summit
*tuu= two
*tu=pE=hdan= eight (lit. “two-ten”) *
*túk H “to bud, to put forth buds or shoots
*=tùk= L “to come out, to grow (probably related to *tuk H)
*tùkán LH “to shoot
*tùkár LH seal
*tùm L strength
*tùmÀm LL trunk (of the body), waist
*tùmí LH battle, war
*túnsìr HL grave
*túntù HL pillar, stake
*tup “to move (to another place)” *
*tùr L dirt
*tur= oak
*tùrá LH “to be accompanied by, to bring some-body
*tùrÉp LH sweet potato
*turi (accent pattern is not clear) pole (for boats)”
*tùs L rope
*tùsá LH “to recover, to get cured
*tùsà LL sleeve
*tùsù LL shaman, shamanism
*túùkì HLL sake cup (< OJ tukyi “sake cup”)
*túùnàs HLL “to be early, to be quick
*tùùtí LLH large wooden hammer (< MJ tuti “hammer”) *
*tùy L belly, intestines
*túymà HL “to be far
*tǘr= H “to lengthen, to extend
*tǜy L “to be cut (*tüy=i L-H)
*=tya[qu] birthmark, mole
*tyùk L fall
*tyOrtya “to shoot (from the bow), to hit (the mark)”
*ù=pák=dÈ L-H-L “to compare *
*=[ù]g L place, spot
*ug “to take, to receive” (sing.)
*úg=ìnà H-LL “to take, to receive” (plur.)
*ùgúy LH “to burn
*ùkú LH “to blow
*ùnár(=)pÈ LH(-)L aunt
*úntì HL fire
*ùnú LH mother
*ùpár LH soot
*uqeeti (*ugeeti ?) chilblains
*ùr L fur coat *
*ùráy LH stake
*ùrÈ LL foot
*us “to go out, to die out (of a fire)”
*us “to put on (trousers or shoes)”
*ùs(=)í (*ùg(=)í/*ùh(=)í ?) L(-)H “to smear (it), to daub (it)”
*úsÈy HL hot water
*ùsís (*ùgís/*ùhís ?) LH hoof
*ússì=qù (*úCgì=qù/*úChì=qù ?) HLL servant
*ùt L rib
*ùtáp=kÈ LH-L “to patch (up)” *
*ùtùr LL between, interval, space
*úù[y]nà HLL ash, ashes
*=ǜr= L “to dig (it)”
*yá H dry land, the shore
*ya(=)ki (accent pattern is not clear) cicada
*yaa net
*yam chestnut
*yár(=)pÈ H(-)L diaper *
*yÓmkòr HL hiccup
*yÓspÈ (*yóspè/*yÓspè/*yóspÈ ?) HL stomach
*yuk reindeer
*yúk(=)kì H(-)L tick
*yúp H elder brother
*yúùkàr HLL epic song 154

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Vovin, Alexander. 1993. A Reconstruction of Proto-Ainu. Leiden: Brill.
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