Appendix:Proto-Bantu Swadesh list

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The following Proto-Bantu reconstructions are derived from the 100-word Swadesh list. Two versions are given, as quoted in Bastin (2019) and Schadeberg (2003) respectively. Both sources use BLR2 (Bantu Lexical Reconstructions 2) originally published in 1999.

Bostoen (2019)[edit]

The selected Bantu Lexical Reconstructions 2 (BLR2) reconstructions below are from Bastin, et al. (1999),[1] as quoted in Bostoen (2019).[2] 92 concepts, from the 100-word Swadesh list are given.

Notes
0 a previously proposed but rejected proto-form (731 items)
1 a well-established reconstruction having a Bantu-wide distribution and thus going back to PB (310 items)
1a a derived form whose root is a well-established PB reconstruction (514 items)
1(a) a derived form which can itself be reconstructed to PB (20 items)
2/2a a cluster of variable reconstructions which cover together the whole Bantu domain and have each a large distribution (17 items)
3 a well-established regional proto-form (593 items)
3a a derived form whose root is a well-established regional proto-form (519 items)
4 a problematic reconstruction (1243 items)
5 reconstructions corresponding to a comparative series whose attestations are few and/or spatially restricted (5397 items)
No. Proto-Bantu Gloss Notes
1 *ncè all 1
2 *bókò arm; hand; front paw 1
3 *bú soil, ashes: dust 1
4 bark
5 *dà abdomen, intestines; [belly] 1
5 *bùmò abdomen; pregnancy [belly] 3
6 *nénè big 1
7 *jʊ̀nì bird 4
8 *dʊ́m bite 1
9 *jídʊ̀ black 1(a)
10 blood
11 *kúpà bone 1
12 *béèdè breast, udder 4
13 *pɪ́ be burnt; be hot; becooked; be ripe; be red 1
14 cloud
15 *pépò wind; cold 1
15 *pód be cold, cool down; be quiet 1
16 *jìj come 1
17 *kú die 1
18 *bʊ́à dog 1
19 *nyó drink 1
20 *jʊ́m be dry 1
21 *tʊ́ì ear 1
22 *dɪ́ eat 1
23 *gɪ́ egg 4
24 *jícò eye 1
25 *kútà fat; oil 1
26 *cádá feather 3
27 *pɪ́à fire 1(a)
27 *jótò fire, fireplace 1a
28 *cúɪ́ fish 4
29 *gʊ̀dʊk fly; run fast 1
30 *jíjad be full 1(a)
30 *jíjʊd become full 1(a)
31 *pá give 1
32 good
33 *cɪ́ ground; country; underneath 1
34 *búɪ̀ white hair 1
35 *tʊ́è head 1
36 *jígu hear 1
37 *tɪ́mà heart; liver 1
38 *jɪ́gá horn 4
39 *bʊ́d break, smash; kill 1
40 *dúɪ́ knee 4
41 *jíjɪ know 1a
41 *jíjɪb know 1a
42 *jánì leaf; grass 4
43 *gʊ̀dʊ̀ leg; hind leg 1
44 *dáad lie down, sleep; spend night 1
45 *tɪ́mà heart; liver 1
46 *dàì long 4
47 louse
48 *dʊ́mè male; husband [man] 1
49 *jíngɪ́ many 4
50 *nyàmà animal; meat 1
50 *títʊ́ animal, meat 1a
51 *jédì moon; month 1(a)
52 mountain
53 *nʊ̀à mouth; lip 4
54 *jádà finger/toe-nail; claw 4
55 *jínà name 4
56 *kòtì (nape of) neck; occiput 1
56 *kíngó neck; nape; voice 1
57 *pɪ́à new 4
58 *tíkʊ̀ night 4
59 *bòmbó forehead; (bridge of) nose 1
59 *jʊ́dʊ̀ nose, nostril 4
60 *mòì one 4
61 *jɪ̀dà path 4
62 *ntʊ̀ person 1
63 *búdà rain 1
64 *kʊ́dà red colour/substance 4
65 *tínà root, base of tree trunk; banana-tree 1
65 *dì root, fibre 1
66 round
67 *céké sand; grains; dregs; chaff 4
67 *cèngà sand; sandy ground 4
68 *gàmb speak; answer 1
68 *tɪ̀ say; quote 1
69 *bón see; find; acquire; undergo 1
70 *bʊ́tò seed 1a
71 *jìkad dwell; be; sit; stay 1
72 *kóbá skin; strap; girdle 1
73 *dáad lie down, sleep 1
74 *kéè little, small 3
75 *jíkì smoke 4
76 *jɪ́m stand; stop, intr. 4
77 star
78 *bʊ̀è stone 1
78 *tádè stone 1
79 *jʊ́bà sun 4
80 *jóg bathe; wash; swim 4
82 *dɪ́mì tongue; language; flame 1
83 *jínò tooth 1
83 *gègò molar tooth; tooth 1
84 *tɪ́ tree; stick 1
85 *bɪ̀dɪ́ two 4
85 *bàdɪ́ two 2
86 *gènd walk; travel; go (away) 1
87 warm (weather)
88 *jíjɪ̀ water 1
89 what ? 4
90 white
91 who?
92 *kádí woman, wife
93 *gɪ̀ go 1

Other well-established Proto-Bantu forms (coded 1 or 1(a) in BLR2) that are on the Swadesh 200-word list and/or the Leipzig-Jakarta list:

dwell, be, become [live]
bàd count
bɪ́ɪ̀ bad
bímb swell
bɪ̀ng chase; chase away; go after [hunt]
bòd be rotten
cèk laugh; joke
cèng cut spp.
cìngʊ rub, smear
dèm be heavy; be honoured
dìbà pool, pond; deep water; well [lake]
dɪ̀d weep; shout; wail
dɪ̀mb trap by birdlime; stick to (something), intr; be firm, intr., [hunt]
díng turn round, tr. intr.; wind round, wrap up
dʊ̀ fight
dʊ̀d be bitter; be sharp
dʊ́k vomit
dùmb smell intr
dʊ̀ng join by tying
dʊ̀ng be straight, right; put straight, right; be fitting; adjust
dùt pull
gàdʊk turn, intr.; go back; come back
gàng tie up
gɪ̀d act, do; say; have
gʊ̀ fall
gʊ̀ndà forest, garden, luxuriant vegetation
jákà year; cultivation season; harvest
jánà child
ját split, tr.; separate
jícɪ̀ day, daytime
jíjɪ̀ river; waterhole
jɪ̀mb sing; dance
jókà snake; intestinal worm
kád be bitter; be sour; be sharp; be fierce
kám squeeze; wring
kèd cut
kɪ́n dance; play; gambol
kóm hit with hammer; beat; kill
kʊ̀d pull
kʊ́dʊ́ adult; important person; master; elder brother (sister); old
kʊ́nì firewood
pád scrape, scratch
pèep blow (as wind); winnow; smoke; breathe
pèèpè wind
píc hide; cover
pìn press, squeeze (especially with the fingers)
píp suck; extract juice
pùk dig up, fling up (earth)
throw away; throw; lose; put; trap; play game; do
tààtá father, my father
táì spittle
tákò buttock, rear part; back
tɪ́ fear
tím dig
tɪ́n cut
tínd push, push back
títʊ́ forest, thicket
stamp; pound; bite [grind, crush]
spit; fix the price
tʊ́ád carry on the head; carry; bring; carry away; be chief; include
túm stab
túm sew, plait
tʊ́ng put through; thread on string; plait; sew; tie up; build; close (in)

Schadeberg (2003)[edit]

The following list of Proto-Bantu reconstructions is listed in Schadeberg (2003: 160-163).[3] The reconstructions themselves are from BLR2 (Bantu Lexical Reconstructions 2).[4] Distribution notes, provided in Schadeberg (2003), are sourced from Bastin, Coupez and Mann (1999).[5]

Notes
  • In the Parts of speech column, noun class categories are provided.
  • In the Distribution column, Guthrie zone letters A-S are given. Lower case zones denote unexplained phonological or morphological deviations. Dashes denote lack of reflexes.
Gloss Gloss notes Proto-Bantu Part of speech Distribution
all *=nce (PPx-o-) ABCDEFGHJKLMnpRS
arm *kʊ=bóko N 15/6 ABCDEFGHJKLMN–RS
ashes *mʊ=tó (=tói ?) N 3 (14) ABcD–––H–KLMnprs
ashes dust, soil, ashes *i=bú N 5 (3, 6) A–CDEFG–JKLM–PRS
bark (skin) *i=gʊla N 5 ––c––F–HjKL–––––
bark (skin) *kɪ=kʊ́kʊ́ N 7 ––CD––––j–LM––––
bark (skin) *lʊ=pʊ́ N 11 ––CD––––J–LM––––
belly *i=bumo N 5 AB–––––H–KLM––R–
belly *i=tʊmbo N 5 ––––E–G–––––NP–S
big *=néne Adj. ABCDE–GHJKLM––R–
big *=néne-p-a V ––––E–GHJ–––NP––
big *=nén-a V ABC–––––––––––––
bird *ka=jʊni N 12/13 (9/10) ABcDeFGHJKlMNP–S
bite *=lʊ́m-a V ABC–EFG–J––MNPRS
black *=jíl-a V ABCDEFgHJKLMNprs
black *=jíl-ʊ Adj. ABCDEFGHJK––N–––
black *pi Ideo., Adj. ––C––FG––––––––S
black *i=piipí N 5 –B–––F––JKLMnP–S
blood *ma=gilá N 6 ABCD–––H–KL–––––
blood < avoid *=gil-a V A–C–EFGHJKLMN–RS
blood *ma=gadí N 6 –––deF–––––MNP–S
blood < oil palm, palm oil *=gadí N 9, 6 –BC––––HJKLM––R–
blood *mʊ=lopa N 3 –––D––G––KLMN––S
blood *ma=ɲínga N 6 –b––EF–HJKL–––––
bone *i=kúpa N 5/6 ABCDEFGHJKLMNPRS
breasts *ma=béele N 5/6 ABCDEFGHJKLMNPRS
burn, be hot *=lʊng-ʊl-a V ––C–EFGHJKLMNpRS
burn, be hot *=pɪ́ -a V ABCDEFGHJKLMNPRS
cloud *i=lʊnde N 5/6 –––––FG–––––NPR–
cold *mʊ=didi N 3 –BC––––H––––N–––
cold *=didim-a V ––C–EFGH–––MN–RS
cold cool *=pól-a V ABcDEFGHJKLMNPRS
come *=jij-a V ABC–EFGHJKLMNPRS
die *=kú-a V ABCDEFGHJKLMNPRS
dog *mbʊ́a N 9/10 ABCDEFGHJKLMNPRS
drink *=nyó-a V ABCDEFGHJKLMNPRS
dry *=jʊ́m-a V ABCDEFGHJKLMNP–S
dry *=jʊ́m-u Adj. –B–––F––JKL–NP––
ear *kʊ=tʊ́i N 15/6 ABCDEFGHJKLMNPR–
eat *=lɪ́ -a V ABCDEFGHJKLMNPRS
egg *i=gɪ́ N 5/6 ABCDEFGhJKLMnPRS
eye *i=jíco N 5/6 ABCDEFGHJKLMNPRS
fat *ma=kúta N 6 ABCDEFGHJKLMNP–S
feather *lʊ=cála N 11 (5/6) ABCD–––HJKL–––R–
fire *mʊ=jóto N 3/4 –BC–EFGHJKLMNPRS
fire < warm oneself *=jót-a V ABCdEFGHJKLMNPRS
fire (< burn; v.s.) *tʊ=pɪ́ -a N 13 A–CDE–––JKLMnprS
fire *tʊ=jíja N 13 A–CD–––H–KL–––––
fire *mʊ=lɪlo N 3/4 ––––E–––J–LMN–RS
fish *ncúɪ N 9/10 ABCDE–GHjKLM––R–
flea *ndá N 9/10 ab–DEF––J––MN–rS
fly *=gʊl-ʊk-a V A––DE–G–J–LMNP––
full *=jíjal-a V ABCDEfGHjKLmNPRS
give *=pá-a V ABCDEFGHJKLMNPRS
go *=gɪ-a V ABCDEF–HJKLMNPRS
good *=jijá Adj. ––––EF–HJ–L–––––
ground; (below) *(pa-)ncɪ́ N (16+) 9 ABCDEFGHJKLMNPRS
hair *=cíti (LL?) N (class?) A–––––––J–LMN–RS
hair *lʊ=cʊkɪ́ N 11/10 ABC––––HjKL–––R–
hair *lʊ=jʊɪ́lɪ́ (ɪ ~ e) N 11/10 –––DEFG–J–lM––––
head *mʊ=tʊe N 3/4 ABCDEFGHJKLMNPR-
hear *=jígu-a V ––c––FGHjKLMNPRS
heart (> liver) *mʊ=tɪ́ma N 3/4 ABCDEFGHJKLMNPR–
horn *lʊ=pémbé N 9/10 ––CDEFG–J––MN–––
horn (object made from horn) *mʊ=céngo N 3/4 –––D–––HJKLMNP––
kill *=bʊ́l(-ag)-a V ABCDEFGH–KL––PRS
kill *=jíp(-ag)-a V a–cDeF–h–KLMNPrS
knee *i=dúɪ́ (HL?) N 5/6 A–CDEFG–JKlM–––S
knee *i=bóngó N 5/6 ABCDE––H––L–––––
know *=jíjɪ(b-a) V ABCDEFGHJKLMN–RS
know *=many-a V AbCDEFG–J–LMNP––
leaf *i=jáni (tone?) N 5/6 ABCDE–G–JKLMN––S
leg *kʊ=gʊlʊ N 15/6 ABCDEFGHJKLMN–R–
lie, sleep *=lá-al-a V ABCDEFGHJKLMNpRS
liver (see also heart) *=balɪ N (class ?) ABC––––––K––––––
long, far, long ago *=lai Adj. –BCDEFGHJKLMNPRS
long, far, long ago *=lai-p-a V A–––EFGHJKLM–pRS
man, husband (< ‘bite’, v.s.) *mʊ=lʊ́me N 1/2; Adj. ABCDE-GHJKLMNPRS
many *=jíngɪ́ Adj. aBcDEFGHJKLMNPRS
meat, animal *ɲama N 9/10 ABCDEFGHJKLMNPRS
moon (< ‘white’, v.i.) *kʊ=jédi N 15/6, 3/4 ABCDEFGHJKLMNPRS
mountain, hill *lʊ=gʊlʊ N 11/10 –B–D–F––J–L–––R–
mountain, hill < top, sky *i=gʊlʊ (~ LH) N 5 ABC–EFGHJKLMNPRS
mouth *ka=nʊa N 12 aBCDE–gHJKLMnpRS
mouth lip, mouth *mʊ=lomo N 3/4 ––CDEFG–JKLMN––S
nail *lʊ=jála N 11/10 ABCDEfGHJKLMnpRS
name *i=jína N 5/6 ABCDEFGHJKLMNPRS
neck *nkíngó N 9/10 ABCDEFGHJKLMNPRS
neck nape *nkoti N 9/10 ABCDE–GHJKLMNPRS
new (< ‘burn’, v.s.) *=pɪ́-a (HH?) Adj. –––DEFG–JKLMN––S
night, 24 hour period *bʊ=tíkʊ (í ~ ú) N 14 AbCDEFGhJKlMNpRS
nose *i=jʊ́lʊ N 5/6 ABCDEF–HJKL–––R–
one *=moi Num. ABCDEFGhJKLMnpRS
path *njɪla (LH?) N 9/10 ABCDEFGHJKLMNPRS
person *mʊ=ntʊ N 1/2 ABCDEFGHJKLMNPRS
rain *mbúlá N 9/10 ABCDEFGHJKLMNPRS
red (substance) *nkʊ́la N 9 ABCd–––HJKLM––––
red (substance) red soil *nkʊ́ndʊ́ N 9 a–C–E–G––K–––pR–
red (substance) *=tɪl-a (tone?) V –BCD–––H–KL–––R–
root, fibre *mʊ=di N 3/4 ABCDEFGHJKLMN–RS
round (be, make) *=bʊ́lʊng-a V ––C–––GhJ–LMN–rS
round (be, make) make round and smooth *=kʊ́lʊng-a V ––C–––G–J––MN–RS
sand *mʊ=céké N 3 AbCD–––HJKLMN–RS
sand *i=cenga (e ~ a) N 3 aBCDeFgHJKLMNprs
say, quote *=tɪ V ––C–E–GHJ––MNPRS
say, quote do, say *=gɪl-a V ABCD––––JK–M–P–S
say, quote speak, answer *=gamb-a V ABCDEFGHJKLMNP–S
see *=bón-á (b ~ m) V –BCDEFGHJKLMNPRS
seed *mbʊ́t-o N 10 –BCD–––HJKLMN–R–
sit *=jikal-a V ABCDEFGHJKLMNPRS
skin, strap, cloth *=kánda N 3/4, … ABc–EFGHJKLMNPrS
skin, strap, cloth skin, strap, bark *mʊ=kóbá N 3/4, … ABCDEFG–JKLMnpRs
skin, strap, cloth skin, cloth *ngʊ́bo N 9/10 A––dEfGH–kLMNP–S
sleep *tʊ=ló N 13 ABCDEFGHJKLMNpRs
small *=(kée)kée Adj. –BCD––GHJ–LM–P––
small *=kée-p-a V –––D–FG–JKLMN––S
smoke *mʊ=jíki (í ~ ó) N 3/4 ABCDEFGHJKLMNPRS
stand *=jɪ́m(-al)-a V AbCDeFG–JKLMNp–S
star *nyénye(dí) N 9/10 –B––E–gHJ–LMN––S
stone *i=bʊe N 5/6 ––CDEFG–JKLMNPRS
stone stone, iron ore *i=tále N 5/6 ABCD–F–HJKLMNPRS
sun *i=jʊ́ba N 5 ABcDEFGHJKLMNPRS
swim, bathe *=jóg-a V ABCDEFGHJKLMNPR–
tail *mʊ=kɪ́la N 3/4 ABCDEFGHJKLMNPRS
tongue *lʊ=lɪ́mi N 11/10 ABcDEfGHJKLMNPRS
tooth *i=jíno N 5/6 ABCDEFGHJKLMNP–S
tooth molar *i=gego N 5/6 ABC–EFG–jKL––PRS
tree *mʊ=tɪ́ N 3/4 ABCDEFGHJKLMNPRS
two *=balɪ́ (a ~ ɪ) Num. ABCDEFGHJKLMNPRS
walk *=gend-a V ABC–EFGhJKLMNPrS
warm, hot (< ‘burn’, v.s.) *=pɪ́ -ʊ Adj. ––––EFG–j–LMNPR–
water *ma=jíjɪ N 6 AbCDEFGHJKLMNprS
water water, pool *i=diba (HH?) N 5/6 ABCDEFGHJKLMNPRS
what *kı=í N 7 ––CDEFGHJ–LMN–––
what where, which *pa=í N 16 A–––––––JKL–––RS
white, bright *=jél-a V –BCD–FG–J–L–N–RS
white, bright *=jél-ʊ Adj. ––CDEFGHJ––M––––
white, bright *=jél-ʊ Adj. ––CDEFGHJ––M––––
who *n(d)ai (tone?) Inv. ––C–––G–J–––––––
woman, wife *mʊ=kádí N 1/2 ABCDefgHJKLMNprS

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bastin, Y., A. Coupez & M. Mann (1999). Continuity and Divergence in the Bantu Languages: Perspectives from a Lexicostatistic Study. Tervuren: Royal Museum for Central Africa.
  2. ^ Bostoen, Koen (2019). Reconstructing Proto-Bantu. In Mark Van de Velde, Koen Bostoen, Derek Nurse, and Gérard Philippson (eds). The Bantu languages (2nd ed.), 308-334. New York: Routledge. →ISBN. (First edition published by Routledge in 2004.)
  3. ^ Schadeberg, Thilo C. 2003. Historical linguistics. In Derek Nurse and Gérard Philippson (eds.), The Bantu languages. (Routledge language family series 4. New York: Routledge. →ISBN
  4. ^ Coupez, A., Bastin, Y. and Mumba, E. (1998) Reconstruction lexicales bantoues 2/Bantu lexical reconstructions 2. (Computerized data base. Download from: http://www.linguistics.berkeley.edu/CBOLD .)
  5. ^ Bastin, Y., Coupez, A. and Mann, M. (1999) Continuity and divergence in the Bantu languages: perspectives from a lexicostatistic study, Tervuren: MRAC.

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