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This Proto-Germanic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.




*-iz (adjective *-izô)

  1. -er. Forms the comparative of certain adverbs.

Usage notes[edit]

This was the normal comparative suffix for all i-, u- and ja-stem adverbs. The regular a-stem adverbs sometimes used this suffix, and sometimes the related suffix *-ōz without any predictable rule.

Derived terms[edit]


Most of these descendants eventually replaced the suffix with the equivalent from the adjectives, because the older adverbial suffix was no longer distinctive after the loss of final *-iz.

  • Old English: -
  • Old Frisian: -
    • West Frisian: -er
  • Old Saxon: -
  • Old Dutch: -
    • Middle Dutch: -
  • Old High German: -
  • Old Norse: -r
  • Gothic: -𐌹𐍃 (-is)