Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/éǵh₂

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Reconstruction[edit]

The presence of the laryngeal is confirmed by the –h- in Sanskrit ahám. Instead of the unknown medial laryngeal *-H-, *-h₂- is often reconstructed here, but there is no secure evidence that would prove such assumption.

Three forms can be reconstructed formally, using the comparative method:

  • *éǵ (Hittite ūg, Old Lithuanian , Slavic ja, Avestan azə)
  • *eǵHóm (Sanskrit ahám, Avestan azə̄m, OCS azъ, Homeric Greek ἐγών ‎(egṓn))
  • *eǵóh₂ (Latin egō, Greek ἐγώ ‎(egṓ), Venetic ego)

There seem to be no grounds for assuming an initial *h₁ in PIE (although it is not impossible) or a final *-H in the form *éǵ. The form *éǵ is obviously the most archaic one, with *eǵHóm and *eǵóh₂ being younger, dialectal variants. The sandhi form of *éǵ - *éḱ, with a final devoiced plosive, is attested in Baltic (Old Prussian as, es) and apparently in the Hittite variant [script needed] ‎(ugga).

Pronoun[edit]

*éǵ(h₂) or *eǵHóm or *eǵóh₂

  1. I (first-person pronoun)

Declension[edit]

Declension of *éǵh₂ Singular Dual Plural
Nominative *éǵ(h₂), *eǵHóm, *eǵóh₂ *wé *wéy
Accusative *m̥(m)é ~ me *n̥h₃mé ~ noh₃ *n̥smé ~ nos
Genitive *méme ~ *moy  ?  ? ~ *nos
Dative *méǵʰye ~ moy  ?  ? ~ *nos

Following Andrew L. Sihler (1995):

Declension of *eǵoH Singular Dual Plural
Nominative *eǵoH *we-h₁ *we-i
Accusative **m-mé (> *mé) ~ me *n̥h₁-wé ~ no-h₁ *n̥s-mé ~ no-s
Genitive *mé-me ~ *m-os  ? *n̥s-óm ~ *no-s
Dative *mé-bʰi ~ m-ey, m-oy  ? *n̥s-m-éy ~ *no-s
Ablative **m-m-ét (> *mét)  ? *n̥s-m-ét
  • Oblique pl. *n̥s- possibly continues earlier **m̥s- (same element of sg. oblique stem with pl. s). This n was made common to the whole paradigm, with even enclitic *nos for *mos, but the verb endings *-me(dʰh₂), *-mos(dʰh₂) were not disturbed.
  • Dat. *mégʰi for *mébʰi is attested in Italic and Indic, but not in Iranian, as Avestan maibyā. Also Indic máhyam may be from original -bʰ-, as this sometimes becomes Indic -h- (even more here by dissimilation from initial m-).

Derived terms[edit]

  • *memos (from gen. *méme, with loss of second m)?, *mewos (contaminated by *tewos, *sewos)?, *meyos (from dat. *mey)?

Descendants[edit]

  • Albanian:
    • Old Albanian: u (< *udh < *)
      • Albanian: unë (< u + -) (attest. 1462, Skanderbeg's counselor)
  • Armenian:
    • Old Armenian: ես ‎(es)
      • Armenian: ես ‎(es)
  • Balto-Slavic: *eź, *aź
  • Germanic: *ek, *ik, *wīz (see for further descendants)
  • Hellenic
  • Indo-Iranian: *ajʰam
    • Indo-Aryan
    • Iranian: *adzam
      • Avestan: azə̄m, azə
      • Kurdish
      • Old Persian: adam
      • Ossetian: ӕз ‎(æz)
  • Italic: *egō, *nōs, *nosteros
    • Faliscan: [script needed] ‎(eqo), [script needed] ‎(eko), [script needed] ‎(eco)
    • Latin: ego, nōs, noster
    • South Picene: [script needed] ‎(ekú)
    • (Possibly) Venetic: [script needed] ‎(ego)
  • Tocharian:

Coordinate terms[edit]

References[edit]