Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/-tós

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Suffix[edit]

*(Ø)-tós[1]

  1. Creates verbal adjectives from verb stems.

Inflection[edit]

Thematic
masculine feminine
nominative *(Ø)-tós *(Ø)-téh₂
genitive *(Ø)-tósyo *(Ø)-téh₂s
masculine singular dual plural
nominative *(Ø)-tós *(Ø)-tóh₁ *(Ø)-tóes
vocative *(Ø)-té *(Ø)-tóh₁ *(Ø)-tóes
accusative *(Ø)-tóm *(Ø)-tóh₁ *(Ø)-tóns
genitive *(Ø)-tósyo *? *(Ø)-tóoHom
ablative *(Ø)-téad *? *(Ø)-tómos
dative *(Ø)-tóey *? *(Ø)-tómos
locative *(Ø)-téy, *(Ø)-tóy *? *(Ø)-tóysu
instrumental *(Ø)-tóh₁ *? *(Ø)-tṓys
feminine singular dual plural
nominative *(Ø)-téh₂ *(Ø)-téh₂h₁(e) *(Ø)-téh₂es
vocative *(Ø)-téh₂ *(Ø)-téh₂h₁(e) *(Ø)-téh₂es
accusative *(Ø)-tā́m *(Ø)-téh₂h₁(e) *(Ø)-téh₂n̥s
genitive *(Ø)-téh₂s *? *(Ø)-téh₂oHom
ablative *(Ø)-téh₂s *? *(Ø)-téh₂mos
dative *(Ø)-téh₂ey *? *(Ø)-téh₂mos
locative *(Ø)-téh₂, *(Ø)-téh₂i *? *(Ø)-téh₂su
instrumental *(Ø)-téh₂h₁ *? *(Ø)-téh₂bʰi
neuter singular dual plural
nominative *(Ø)-tóm *(Ø)-tóy(h₁) *(Ø)-téh₂
vocative *(Ø)-tóm *(Ø)-tóy(h₁) *(Ø)-téh₂
accusative *(Ø)-tóm *(Ø)-tóy(h₁) *(Ø)-téh₂
genitive *(Ø)-tósyo *? *(Ø)-tóoHom
ablative *(Ø)-téad *? *(Ø)-tómos
dative *(Ø)-tóey *? *(Ø)-tómos
locative *(Ø)-téy, *(Ø)-tóy *? *(Ø)-tóysu
instrumental *(Ø)-tóh₁ *? *(Ø)-tṓys

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


Descendants[edit]

  • Balto-Slavic: *-tas
    • Slavic: *-tъ(some past passive participles)
  • Hellenic: *-tós
    • Ancient Greek: -τός(-tós)
  • Germanic: *-daz, *-taz(all weak past participles, a few adjectives)
  • Indo-Iranian: *-tá, *-dá
    • Indo-Aryan: *-tá, *-dá
      • Sanskrit: -त(-tá), -द(-dá)
    • Iranian:
      • Old Persian: 𐎫(-ta, past participle)
        • Middle Persian: [script needed](-tag)
          • Persian: ـته(-te, ta)
      • Avestan: [script needed](-ta)
  • Italic: *-tos
    • Latin: -tus(all perfect past participles)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ringe, Don (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford University Press