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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



From *dʰeǵʰ-.

However, Kloekhorst argues that the Sanskrit and Anatolian evidence point towards a reconstruction of the root *dʰeǵ- as opposed to *dʰeǵʰ- on the basis that:

  1. In the Sanskrit oblique stem jm-, -j- must reflect *ǵ-, and cannot reflect *ǵʰ-, which would regularly give -h- in all positions.
  2. The long vowel in the Hittite nom. sg. [tēkan] suggests a "voiced unaspirated" (pre-glottalised) velar. See Kloekhorst (2012).
  3. The *ǵʰ- reconstructable from Latin, Germanic and Greek can be explained in the glottalic theory as a simplification of the cluster *dʰǵ /dˀg/ to *dʰǵʰ /dg/. The opposite development is much less likely.

A phonetically difficult, but possible connection is with *(s)teǵ- ‎(to cover), with devoicing of *dʰ to *t via Siebs' law.[1]


*dʰéǵʰōm f ‎(oblique stem *ǵʰm-)

  1. earth


  • The Hittite evidence suggests a regular hysterokinetic inflection; Kloekhorst reconstructs the original paradigm as:
Nom. Sg. *dʰéǵ-m-
Acc. Sg. *dʰǵ-ém-m
Gen. Sg. *dʰǵ-m-és

Derived terms[edit]

  • *ǵʰmṓ ‎(earthling, human) (from extended locative *dʰǵʰm-én ‎(on the earth))




  • Don Ringe, From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford University Press, 2006
  • Alwin Kloekhorst (2008), Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon, Leiden, Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, page 859f
  • “c‘amak‘” in Hrach Martirosyan (2010), Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon, Leiden, Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, ISBN 9789004173378, pages 621–623