Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search
This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



From *dʰeǵʰ-.

However, Kloekhorst argues that the Sanskrit and Anatolian evidence point towards a reconstruction of the root *dʰeǵ- as opposed to *dʰeǵʰ- on the basis that:

  1. In the Sanskrit oblique stem jm-, -j- must reflect *ǵ-, and cannot reflect *ǵʰ-, which would regularly give -h- in all positions.
  2. The long vowel in the Hittite nom. sg. [tēkan] suggests a "voiced unaspirated" (pre-glottalised) velar. See Kloekhorst (2012).
  3. The *ǵʰ- reconstructable from Latin, Germanic and Greek can be explained in the glottalic theory as a simplification of the cluster *dʰǵ /dˀg/ to *dʰǵʰ /dg/. The opposite development is much less likely.

A phonetically difficult, but possible connection is with *(s)teǵ- ‎(to cover), with devoicing of *dʰ to *t via Siebs' law.[1]


*dʰéǵʰōm f ‎(oblique stem *ǵʰm-)

  1. earth


  • The Hittite evidence suggests a regular hysterokinetic inflection; Kloekhorst reconstructs the original paradigm as:
Nom. Sg. *dʰéǵ-m-
Acc. Sg. *dʰǵ-ém-m
Gen. Sg. *dʰǵ-m-és

Derived terms[edit]

  • *ǵʰmṓ ‎(earthling, human) (from extended locative *dʰǵʰm-én ‎(on the earth))



  • Albanian: dhe (< *dzō < *dʰgʰem)
  • Anatolian:
    • Hittite: 𒋼𒂊𒃷 ‎(te-e-kán [tēkan]) (gen. 𒁖𒈾𒀸 ‎(ták-na-aš [taknas]))
    • Luwian
      • Hieroglyphic: [script needed] ‎(takam)
      • Cuneiform: [script needed] ‎(tijamm(i))
  • Armenian:
    • Old Armenian: ցամաք ‎(cʿamakʿ, dry; dry land) (possibly)
  • Balto-Slavic: *źemē (from the accusative *ǵʰem-m̥)
  • Celtic: *gdū (< *gdō, *gdon-)
    • Old Irish: (gen. don < *gdonos)
  • Hellenic:
  • Italic:
  • Indo-Iranian:
    • Indic:
    • Iranian:
      • Avestan: [script needed] ‎(zā̊)(acc. [script needed] ‎(zəm))
      • Kurdish:
      • Ossetian: зӕхх ‎(zæxx)
      • Middle Persian: zmyk' ‎(zamīg)
  • Tocharian


  • Don Ringe, From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford University Press, 2006
  • Alwin Kloekhorst (2008), Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon, Leiden, Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, page 859f
  • “c‘amak‘” in Hrach Martirosyan (2010), Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon, Leiden, Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, ISBN 9789004173378, pages 621–623