Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/h₁eǵʰs

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Reconstruction[edit]

Italic, Celtic and Greek point to PIE *eḱs. Balto-Slavic *iś and *iź (either could be word-sandhi variant of the other) forms have unexplained initial *i-. However, due to aspirates in the old compounds such as ἔσχατος ‎(éskhatos) and ἐχθός ‎(ekhthós), a pre-form *h₁eǵʰs is needed.

Adverb[edit]

*h₁eǵʰs

  1. out

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Albanian: *its
    • Albanian: ith ‎(back, backward) (obsolete, present as part of bythë), ish ‎(former) (< ek's)
  • Balto-Slavic: *iź, *iś
    • Latvian: iz
    • Lithuanian:
    • Old Prussian: is
    • Slavic: *jьz
      • Old Church Slavonic: из ‎(iz)
      • Russian: из ‎(iz)
      • Serbo-Croatian:
      • Slovene: iz
  • Celtic: *exs-
  • Hellenic:
  • Italic:
    • Latin: ex
      • English: ex- (borrowed)
    • Oscan: eh-
    • Umbrian: ehe-

References[edit]

  • Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010) Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume I, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 433