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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.


Alternative reconstructions[edit]



  1. high
  2. to grow

Derived terms[edit]

  • *h₂(e)rHdʰ-wos
    • Celtic: *ardwos
      • Old Irish: ard
      • Breton: arz
      • Cornish: arth
      • Welsh: ardd ‎(high; hill)
    • Indo-Iranian: *Hr̥dʰwos
      • Indic:
      • Iranian:
        • Avestan: [script needed] ‎(ǝrǝδβa)
        • Kurdish: hil- (Northern Kurdish), heł- (Central and Southern Kurdish) (prefix to verbs with meaning "up")
        • Roshani: wūrδ "irrigation canal" (< *arda), arδān "ridge alongside irrigation canal" (< *ardanā)
    • Italic: *arðwos
  • Unsorted formations:
    • Anatolian:
      • Hittite: [script needed] ‎(harduppi)
    • Germanic:
    • Italic:
      • Latin: arbor (see there for further descendants)
    • Tocharian:


  1. ^ Michiel de Vaan (2008), Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages, Leiden, Boston: Brill Academic Publishers