Appendix:Proto-Indo-European/h₁ésh₂r̥

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Alternative reconstructions[edit]

Reconstruction[edit]

On the basis of plene spelling in Hittite 𒂊𒌍𒄯 ‎(e-eš-ḫar) Melchert (1984: 92) reconstructs form *h₁ḗsh₂r̥ which is refuted by Kloekhorst (2008: 259).

The full-grade suffix syllable is visible in Latin san-guen < *h₁sh₂en-. Sanskrit अस्नस् ‎(asnás) is a secondary innovation and not evidence for PIE **h₁esh₂nós with zero grade in the suffix syllable and accented full grade in the ending, and Hittite genitive singular 𒅖𒄩𒈾𒀸 ‎(išḫanāš) instead reflects PIE *h₁esh₂enós with secondary hysterodynamic accentuation of an original proterodynamic word (similar to 𒌓𒋻 ‎(uttar, word) and 𒁁𒋻 ‎(pattar, basket)).

Noun[edit]

*h₁ésh₂r̥ m ‎(oblique stem *h₁sh₂én-)

  1. (flowing) blood

Usage notes[edit]

PIE distinguished two roots for "blood", depending on whether it was found inside the body or outside. The former was *h₁ésh₂r̥, the latter *krewh₂-. The lexical distinction between the two is argued to indicate two distinct metaphorical sets, which have been preserved in various derivatives and extensions in the daughters.

The root *krewh₂- yielded words signifying aggression (e.g. in derivatives such as Latin crūdēlis ‎(cruel) and Ancient Greek κρούω ‎(kroúō, to beat, whip, crush)) and dying, seen metaphorically in terms for the hardening (or freezing) of "outside blood" (e.g. in derivatives such as Latin crusta ‎(crust), Old Irish crúaid ‎(hard), Latvian kreve ‎(coagulated blood) and Ancient Greek κρύος ‎(krúos, cold)). The semantic field was thus associated with wounding, death, and drying out/hardening of the body.

On the other hand, the root *h₁ésh₂r̥ has been associated with the notion of life-giving bodily fluid, and also with the patrilineal line in kinship terminology.

Declension[edit]

Proterodynamic r/n-stem.

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • Michiel de Vaan (2008), Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages, Leiden, Boston: Brill Academic Publishers
  • Alwin Kloekhorst (2008), Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon, Leiden, Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, page 256ff
  • Craig H. Melchert, (1984), Studies in Hittite Historical Phonology, Göttingen.
  • J. P. Mallory, D. Q. Adams (eds.) (1997), Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture, London: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, page 71