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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.


Alternative reconstructions[edit]


On the basis of plene spelling in Hittite 𒂊𒌍𒄯 ‎(e-eš-ḫar) Melchert (1984: 92) reconstructs form *h₁ḗsh₂r̥ which is refuted by Kloekhorst (2008: 259).

The full-grade suffix syllable is visible in Latin san-guen < *h₁sh₂en-. Sanskrit अस्नस् ‎(asnás) is a secondary innovation and not evidence for PIE **h₁esh₂nós with zero grade in the suffix syllable and accented full grade in the ending, and Hittite genitive singular 𒅖𒄩𒈾𒀸 ‎(išḫanāš) instead reflects PIE *h₁esh₂enós with secondary hysterodynamic accentuation of an original proterodynamic word (similar to 𒌓𒋻 ‎(uttar, word) and 𒁁𒋻 ‎(pattar, basket)).


*h₁ésh₂r̥ m[2]

  1. (flowing) blood

Usage notes[edit]

PIE distinguished two roots for "blood", depending on whether it was found inside the body or outside. The former was *h₁ésh₂r̥, the latter *krewh₂-. The lexical distinction between the two is argued to indicate two distinct metaphorical sets, which have been preserved in various derivatives and extensions in the daughters.

The root *h₁ésh₂r̥ has been associated with the notion of life-giving bodily fluid, and also with the patrilineal line in kinship terminology.

On the other hand, the root *krewh₂- yielded words signifying aggression (e.g. in derivatives such as Latin crūdēlis ‎(cruel) and Ancient Greek κρούω ‎(kroúō, to beat, whip, crush)) and dying, seen metaphorically in terms for the hardening (or freezing) of "outside blood" (e.g. in derivatives such as Latin crusta ‎(crust), Old Irish crúaid ‎(hard), Latvian kreve ‎(coagulated blood) and Ancient Greek κρύος ‎(krúos, cold)). The semantic field was thus associated with wounding, death, and drying out/hardening of the body.


Athematic, proterokinetic
singular collective
nominative *h₁ésh₂r̥ *h₁ésh₂ōr
genitive *h₁sh₂éns *h₁sh₂nés
singular dual plural collective
nominative *h₁ésh₂r̥ *h₁ésh₂ōr
vocative *h₁ésh₂r̥ *h₁ésh₂ōr
accusative *h₁ésh₂r̥ *h₁ésh₂ōr
genitive *h₁sh₂éns *h₁sh₂nés
ablative *h₁sh₂éns *h₁sh₂nés
dative *h₁sh₂éney *h₁sh₂néy
locative *h₁sh₂én, *h₁sh₂éni *h₁sh₂én, *h₁sh₂éni
instrumental *h₁sh₂énh₁ *h₁sh₂néh₁


Derived terms[edit]



  1. ^ Ringe, Don (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford University Press
  2. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill