The full-grade suffix syllable is visible in Latin san-guen < *h₁sh₂en-. Sanskrit अस्नस् (asnás) is a secondary innovation and not evidence for PIE **h₁esh₂nós with zero grade in the suffix syllable and accented full grade in the ending, and Hittite genitive singular 𒅖𒄩𒈾𒀸 (išḫanāš) instead reflects PIE *h₁esh₂enós with secondary hysterodynamic accentuation of an original proterodynamic word (similar to 𒌓𒋻 (uttar, “word”) and 𒁁𒋻 (pattar, “basket”)).
- (flowing) blood
PIE distinguished two roots for "blood", depending on whether it was found inside the body or outside. The former was *h₁ésh₂r̥, the latter *krewh₂-. The lexical distinction between the two is argued to indicate two distinct metaphorical sets, which have been preserved in various derivatives and extensions in the daughters.
The root *h₁ésh₂r̥ has been associated with the notion of life-giving bodily fluid, and also with the patrilineal line in kinship terminology.
On the other hand, the root *krewh₂- yielded words signifying aggression (e.g. in derivatives such as Latin crūdēlis (“cruel”) and Ancient Greek κρούω (kroúō, “to beat, whip, crush”)) and dying, seen metaphorically in terms for the hardening (or freezing) of "outside blood" (e.g. in derivatives such as Latin crusta (“crust”), Old Irish crúaid (“hard”), Latvian kreve (“coagulated blood”) and Ancient Greek κρύος (krúos, “cold”)). The semantic field was thus associated with wounding, death, and drying out/hardening of the body.
|locative||*h₁sh₂én, *h₁sh₂éni||—||—||*h₁sh₂én, *h₁sh₂éni|
- *krewh₂- (“blood (outside the body)”)
- Anatolian: *ʔésHr (genitive *ʔsHanós)
- Baltic: *as-n̥-
- Celtic: *īsarnom (“iron”)
- Hellenic: *éhər
- Sanskrit: असृज् (asṛj)
- ^ Ringe, Don (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford University Press
- ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill
- Kloekhorst, Alwin (2008) Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 5), Leiden, Boston: Brill, ISBN 978-90-04-16092-7, page 256ff
- Craig H. Melchert, (1984), Studies in Hittite Historical Phonology, Göttingen.
- Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q., editors (1997) Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture, London, Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, page 71