Appendix:Proto-Indo-European/h₁nómn̥

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Within the disputed Indo-Uralic theory, it has been connected with the Uralic root *nime, whence Finnish nimi, Estonian nimi and Hungarian név.

Kloekhorst 2008:518 argues for a *-mn̥ derivative of the root *h₃neh₃- ‎(to name), reflected in Hittite [script needed] ‎(ḫannai-, to sue, judge) (originally "to call to court") and Ancient Greek ὄνομαι ‎(ónomai, to blame, scold, insult) (with a semantic shift comparable to English to call names).

Noun[edit]

*h₁nómn̥ or *h₃nómn̥ or *h₁néh₃mn̥ or *h₃néh₃mn̥ n

  1. name
    *h₁nómn̥ *dʰeh₁-‎ ― to give a name

Declension[edit]

Comment[edit]

Sources disagree on the reconstruction of this word. Some reconstruct it with initial *h₃- because of Greek ὄνομα ‎(ónoma), ὄνυμα ‎(ónuma), but the lack of an initial laryngeal in Hittite 𒆷𒀀𒈠𒀭 ‎(lāman) suggests *h₁, and Armenian անուն ‎(anun) could be from either one. The Greek o- would then be due to assimilation to the following o-, just as in ὀδούς ‎(odoús, tooth), from *odonts, assimilated from *edonts, from *h₁dont-. Medial *-eh₃- is sometimes reconstructed on the basis of length in some Dutch and Low German denominal verbs (in Indo-Iranian it arose by Brugmann's law, and in Latin by analogy cōg-nōmen ‎(surname) : co-gnōscō ‎(to know), from PIE *ǵneh₃-), but these are more likely to be late forms using the Germanic a/ō ablaut found also in class VI strong verbs.

Cowgill and Beekes (1969) have argued that initial e-/o- of Greek and inital a- of Armenian are simply prothetic vowels, i.e. not of laryngeal origin, which would then render the reconstruction as *nómn̥.

The original paradigm is also somewhat difficult to reconstruct precisely; it might be proterokinetic ablauting *h₁nómn̥ ~ *h₁n̥méns, or just acrostatic with or without zero grade in weak cases. The Tocharian forms seem to come from *(h₁)nem-, which could be from the oblique form in an acrostatic paradigm.

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • Stüber, Karin (1998). The Historical Morphology of n-Stems in Celtic. Maynooth Studies in Celtic Linguistics III. Maynooth: Department of Old Irish, National University of Ireland, pp. 53–59. ISBN 0-901519-54-5.
  • Alwin Kloekhorst (2008), Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon, Leiden, Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, page 282ff