Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/h₂ébōl

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Connection with certain Indo-Iranian terms has been suggested:

  • Pashayi wālī (perhaps < Proto-Indic *abalikā-)
  • Sogdian ʾmʾnk (āmang?, apple), Munji [script needed] (āmenga), Yidgha [script needed] (amuno), Pashto [script needed] (maná, apple), Shughni мӯн (mūn), му̊н (mū̊n, apple), all < Proto-Iranian *amarnaka- ~ *amarnā-, possibly reflecting earlier *abarna/ā- (via assimilation in nasality from *b..n to *m..n), ultimately from PIE *h₂ebe/olne/eh₂-

There are several indications that the word for "apple" did not belong to the oldest layer of the Indo-European protolanguage:

  1. the word is limited to the West Indo-European languages
  2. it contains the phoneme */b/, which had marginal distribution in PIE
  3. it somewhat resembles the South European word for "apple" (PIE or pseudo-PIE *méh₂lom: Latin mālum, Ancient Greek μῆλον (mêlon)).

This all points that the word entered the Indo-European speech continuum some time after the dissolution of the parent language, most likely as a borrowing from Semitic, or from the same source as Semitic words such as Arabic [script needed] (ʼubullat-, arak, fruits; dried figs pressed in a mass) and Tigre [script needed] (ʼobäl, tamarisk).

Gamkrelidze and Ivanov argue that the Hittite cognate is [script needed] (šam(a)lu-, apple), which renders the original PIE form as *samlu (apple). The original cluster *-ml- remained as such in Anatolian but yielded *-bl- in the other IE languages with otherwise rare/non-existing phoneme */b/. Such a development is not attested anywhere else, however, and with the only sound that *h₂ébōl and [script needed] (šam(a)lu-, apple) have in common being */l/ the connection remains dubious. The Hittite word is furthermore identical to Hattic [script needed] (šawat, apple, apple tree) with the usual Hattic /t/ = Hittite /l/ correspondence, though it could easily be a borrowing from Hattic rather than vice versa.

Reconstruction[edit]

Germanic stem variants *apal- and *apla- point to the originally archaic ablauting paradigm.

Noun[edit]

*h₂ébōl m

  1. apple

Inflection[edit]

Athematic, amphikinetic
singular
nominative *h₂ébōl
genitive *h₂blés
singular dual plural
nominative *h₂ébōl *h₂ébolh₁(e) *h₂éboles
vocative *h₂ébol *h₂ébolh₁(e) *h₂éboles
accusative *h₂ébolm̥ *h₂ébolh₁(e) *h₂éboln̥s
genitive *h₂blés *? *h₂blóHom
ablative *h₂blés *? *h₂bl̥mós
dative *h₂bléy *? *h₂bl̥mós
locative *h₂bél, *h₂béli *? *h₂bl̥sú
instrumental *h₂bléh₁ *? *h₂bl̥bʰí

Synonyms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Balto-Slavic: *āˀbōl
  • Celtic: *abalom (see there for further descendants)
  • Germanic: *aplaz (see there for further descendants)
  • Italic:
    • Oscan: Abella (the name of a city in Campania which Vergil calls malifera, i.e. "apple-bearing") - usually dismissed as a borrowing from a northern language though

References[edit]