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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.


Alternative reconstructions[edit]



  1. to be/become dry
  2. to burn, to glow
  3. hearth
  4. ashes

Derived terms[edit]

  • *h₂eHs-eh₁-(ye)- ‎(stative)[1]
  • *h₂s-tḗr ‎(star)
  • *h₂eHs-h₂- ‎(hearth, fireplace)[1]
    • Anatolian:
      • Hittite: [script needed] c ‎(ḫāššā-, fireplace, hearth)
      • Lycian: [script needed] c ‎(xahadi-, altar)
    • Italic: *āzā ‎(altar)
  • Unsorted formations:
    • Anatolian:
      • Hittite: [script needed] c ‎(ḫāšš-, ash(es); dust; soap)
    • Germanic:
      • Old High German: essa ‎(ash)
      • Old Norse: [Runic needed] ‎(aRina, ash)
    • Indo-Iranian:
      • Indo-Aryan:
        • Sanskrit: आस ‎(ā́sa-, ashes, dust)
      • Iranian:
        • Ormuri: [script needed] ‎(yānak, ash) < *ās-naka-
    • Tocharian:
      • Tocharian A: asatär ‎(dries up)
      • Tocharian B: osotär ‎(dries up)
  • enlarged with a dental
    • Anatolian:
      • Hittite: [script needed] ‎(hāt-i) / [script needed] ‎(hat-, to dry up, become parched)
    • Armenian:
      • Old Armenian: հաստեայ ‎(hasteay, kind of pastry) (possibly)
      • Old Armenian: ոստին ‎(ostin, dry) (possibly)
    • Balto-Slavic:
      • Czech: ozditi ‎(to dry malt)
      • Old Polish: ozd ‎(dry malt)
    • Celtic: *ātis ‎(furnace, oven)
      • Old Irish: áith ‎(furnace, oven)
        • Irish: áith ‎(drying kiln)
      • Middle Welsh: odyn ‎(kiln)
        • Welsh: odyn ‎(kiln)
    • Hellenic:
      • Ancient Greek: ἄζω ‎(ázō, to dry)
    • Indo-Iranian:
      • Iranian:
        • Khotanese: [script needed] ‎(astaucä, dry land)
        • → Old Armenian: աստուճ ‎(astuč, dry (of bread))
    • Italic: *asso- ‎(dried, roasted)
      • Latin: assus ‎(roasted, baked)
  • enlarged with a velar
    • Armenian:
      • Old Armenian: աճիւն ‎(ačiwn, ashes)
      • Old Armenian: ազազիմ ‎(azazim, to grow dry)
      • Old Armenian: ասկն ‎(askn, ruby) (possibly)
    • Germanic: (possibly) *askǭ ‎(ash, ashes) (see there for further descendants)
    • Hellenic:


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, pages 49, 53, 58f
  2. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959) Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume I, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, pages 68–69