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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.




  1. water, body of water

Derived terms[edit]

  • Unsorted formations:
    • Anatolian: *h₂epo ("river")
      • Hittite: [script needed] ‎(hapa), 𒄩𒉺𒀀 ‎(ḫa-pa-a, toward the river)
      • Luwian: [script needed] ‎(hāpa) / [script needed] ‎(hāpi)
      • Palaic: [script needed] ‎(hāpna)
      • Lycian: 𐊜𐊂𐊀 ‎(χba) / 𐊜𐊂𐊀𐊆 ‎(χbai, to irrigate)
    • Armenian:
    • Balto-Slavic:
      • Latvian: upe ‎(brook, river)
      • Lithuanian: ùpė ‎(brook, river)
      • Old Prussian: ape (< *apiā̃)
      • Slavic: [Term?]
        • Old Church Slavonic: вапа ‎(vapa)
    • Celtic: *abū ‎(river) (< *h₂ep-h₃on-)
    • Celtic: *abonā
    • Indo-Iranian: *Hap-
    • Italic:
    • Tocharian:
      • Tocharian A: āp
      • Tocharian B: āp

See also[edit]