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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.




  1. to dwell, live, reside
  2. to stay, spend the night

Derived terms[edit]

  • *h₂wés-e-ti ‎(thematic root present)
    • Germanic: *wesaną (only the imperative and infinitive)
    • Hellenic:
    • Indo-Iranian: *Hwas-
      • Indo-Aryan:
      • Iranian: *Hwah- (see there for further descendants)
  • *h₂(w)e-h₂wós-e ~ *h₂(w)e-h₂us-ḗr ‎(stative)
    • Germanic: *was
    • Indo-Iranian:
      • Indo-Aryan:
        • Sanskrit: [script needed] ‎(uvāsa)
  • *h₂í-h₂ews-e-ti ‎(post-PIE reduplicated present with schewebeablaut)
  • *h₂wés-ti-s ~ *h₂us-téy-s
    • Germanic: *wistiz ‎(essence, nature)
  • Unsorted formations:
    • Anatolian:
      • Hittite: 𒄷𒍑 ‎(ḫu-uš)
      • Luwian: Hieroglyphic: [script needed] ‎(hwisar, game, wild beasts)
    • Armenian:
      • Old Armenian: ագանիմ ‎(aganim, to spend the night), գոյ ‎(goy, being, existence; God), գոմ ‎(gom, to exist)
    • Celtic: *woseti
      • Old Irish: foïd ‎(to spend the night)
      • Middle Welsh: arhos ‎(to stay, stop, wait) (< *ɸare + *woso-)
    • Italic:
    • Tocharian:
      • Tocharian B: wäs- ‎(to stay, to wait)


  1. ^ Ringe, Don (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford University Press