Appendix:Proto-Indo-European/márkos

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Etymology[edit]

The reconstruction at the PIE level is disputed on several grounds:

  • limited geographical distribution in Western IE - only present in Celtic and Germanic branch
  • the presence of rare/disputed PIE phoneme */a/

The form has been connected to words for 'horse' that extend eastward in non-IE languages, but the dating and direction of borrowing remains uncertain. T. Gamkrelidze and V. Ivanov associate the word to horse riding in the Bronze Age.[1][2]

Noun[edit]

*márkos

  1. horse (Equus caballus)
  2. (possibly) wild horse (Equus przewalskii or gmelini)

Derived terms[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

Possibly denoting only a "wild horse" as opposed to the *h₁éḱwos ‎(domestic horse).

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ R. Matasović (2009): Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic, p. 257.
  2. ^ T. Gamkrelidze & V. Ivanov (1995): Indo-European and the Indo-Europeans, p. 472-473.