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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Often compared with similar pronouns in other language families of Eurasia, e.g. Proto-Uralic *tinä. Kloekhorst (2008) proposes that per Anatolian forms such as Hittite 𒍣𒄿𒅅 ‎(zīk), *i rather than *u should be reconstructed in the nominative, which would then suggest an original Indo-Uralic root *ti-.


*túh₂ or *tū́

  1. you, thou (second-person singular pronoun)


Declension of *túh₂ Singular Dual Plural
Nominative *túh₂ *yú *yū́
Accusative *twé ~ te *uh₃wé ~ woh₃ *uswé ~ wos
Genitive *téwe ~ *toy  ?  ? ~ *wos
Dative *tébʰye ~ toy  ?  ? ~ *wos


  • Albanian: ti
  • Armenian:
  • Balto-Slavic: *tū
    • Slavic: *ty (see there for further descendants)
  • Celtic: *tū (see there for further descendants)
  • Germanic: *þū (see there for further descendants)
  • Hellenic:
    • Ancient Greek: σύ ‎()
  • Indo-Iranian:
  • Italic: *tū
    • Latin:
    • Oscan: [script needed] ‎(tiium), [script needed] ‎(tiú) (nominative), [script needed] ‎(tifei), tfei (dative)
    • South Picene: [script needed] ‎(tiom) (accusative), [script needed] ‎(tefeí), [script needed] ‎(tefeh) (dative)
    • Umbrian: tiom, [script needed] ‎(tiu), tio, teio (accusative), [script needed] ‎(tefe), tefe (dative)
  • Tocharian:
    • Tocharian A: tu
    • Tocharian B: tuwe


  • Kloekhorst, Alwin. "Some Indo-Uralic Aspects of Hittite". The Journal of Indo-European Studies 36:1-2.