Appendix:Proto-Indo-European/túh₂

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Often compared with similar pronouns in other language families of Eurasia, e.g. Proto-Uralic *tinä. Kloekhorst (2008) proposes that per Anatolian forms such as Hittite 𒍣𒄿𒅅 ‎(zīk), *i rather than *u should be reconstructed in the nominative, which would then suggest an original Indo-Uralic root *ti-.

Pronoun[edit]

*túh₂ or *tū́

  1. you, thou (second-person singular pronoun)

Declension[edit]

Declension of *túh₂ Singular Dual Plural
Nominative *túh₂ *yú *yū́
Accusative *twé ~ te *uh₃wé ~ woh₃ *uswé ~ wos
Genitive *téwe ~ *toy  ?  ? ~ *wos
Dative *tébʰye ~ toy  ?  ? ~ *wos

Descendants[edit]

  • Albanian: ti
  • Armenian:
  • Balto-Slavic: *tū
    • Slavic: *ty (see there for further descendants)
  • Celtic: *tū (see there for further descendants)
  • Germanic: *þū (see there for further descendants)
  • Hellenic:
    • Ancient Greek: σύ ‎()
  • Indo-Iranian:
  • Italic: *tū
    • Latin:
    • Oscan: [script needed] ‎(tiium), [script needed] ‎(tiú) (nominative), [script needed] ‎(tifei), tfei (dative)
    • South Picene: [script needed] ‎(tiom) (accusative), [script needed] ‎(tefeí), [script needed] ‎(tefeh) (dative)
    • Umbrian: tiom, [script needed] ‎(tiu), tio, teio (accusative), [script needed] ‎(tefe), tefe (dative)
  • Tocharian:
    • Tocharian A: tu
    • Tocharian B: tuwe

References[edit]

  • Kloekhorst, Alwin. "Some Indo-Uralic Aspects of Hittite". The Journal of Indo-European Studies 36:1-2.