Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/tewtéh₂

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Reconstruction[edit]

Clear cognates are found only in Italo-Celtic, Baltic and Germanic, which may point to an old European substratum word,[1] geographically confined to the west and center of IE world.

Persian توده ‎(tōda, masses; heap; stack, hill, rick, tumulus) is sometimes listed as a cognate but a large semantic divergence remains unexplainable.[2]

The supposed Hittite cognate 𒌅𒍖𒍣𒅖 ‎(tuzziš, army; camp) with the semantic shift "people" > "army" > "camp" has been criticized to be unlikely (the normal development would be "camp" > "army").[3] Kloekhorst furthermore argues that the Hittite word can formally only reflect an i-stem tewt-i-, and finally endorses an alternative etymology proposed by Melchert, from PIE *dʰh₁-uti-.

Often a derivation from the roots *tewh₂- ‎(to be strong; swell)[4] (referring to the strength of community) and *tewH- ‎(to look favorably; protect; observe)[5] is considered, but the presence of a laryngeal renders that suspect.[6]

Noun[edit]

*tewtéh₂ f ‎(non-ablauting)[7]

  1. people, tribe

Inflection[edit]

Thematic in *-eh₂
singular
nominative *tewtéh₂
genitive *tewtéh₂s
singular dual plural
nominative *tewtéh₂
vocative *tewtéh₂
accusative *tewtā́m
genitive *tewtéh₂s
ablative *tewtéh₂s
dative *tewtéh₂ey
locative *tewtéh₂, *tewtéh₂i
instrumental *tewtéh₂h₁

Coordinate terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Kloekhorst 2008: 908
  2. ^ EIEC: 417
  3. ^ Benveniste (1962: 122-5) apud Kloekhorst 2008: 908
  4. ^ LIV2: 639
  5. ^ LIV2: 639
  6. ^ EIEC: 417
  7. ^ Ringe, Don (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford University Press

References[edit]