Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/túh₂

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Often compared with similar pronouns in other language families of Eurasia, e.g. Proto-Uralic *tinä. Kloekhorst (2008) proposes that per Anatolian forms such as Hittite 𒍣𒄿𒅅 (zīk), *i rather than *u should be reconstructed in the nominative, which would then suggest an original Indo-Uralic root *ti-.

Pronoun[edit]

*túh₂ or *tū́

  1. you, thou (second-person singular pronoun)

Declension[edit]

Declension of *túh₂ Singular Dual Plural
Nominative *túh₂ *yú *yū́
Accusative *twé ~ *te *uh₃wé ~ *woh₃ *uswé ~ *wos
Genitive *téwe ~ *toy  ?  ? ~ *wos
Dative *tébʰye ~ *toy  ?  ? ~ *wos

Following Andrew L. Sihler (1995):

Declension of *ti (tu) Singular Dual Plural
Nominative *ti (tu) *yu-h₁ *yūs
Accusative *t-wé ~ *te *uh₁-wé ~ *wo-h₁ *us-mé ~ *wo-s
Genitive *té-we ~ *t-os  ? *us-óm ~ *wo-s
Dative *té-bʰi ~ *t-ey, *t-oy  ? *us-m-éy ~ *wo-s
Ablative *t-w-ét  ? *us-m-ét

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Albanian: ti
  • Armenian:
  • Balto-Slavic: *tūˀ
    • Slavic: *ty (see there for further descendants)
  • Celtic: *tū (see there for further descendants)
  • Germanic: *þū, *jūz (see there for further descendants)
  • Hellenic:
  • Indo-Iranian: *tuH
  • Italic: *tū, *wōs, *wosteros
    • Latin: , vōs, voster
    • Oscan: [script needed] (tiium), [script needed] (tiú) (nominative), [script needed] (tifei), tfei (dative)
    • South Picene: [script needed] (tiom) (accusative), [script needed] (tefeí), [script needed] (tefeh) (dative)
    • Umbrian: tiom, [script needed] (tiu), tio, teio (accusative), [script needed] (tefe), tefe (dative)
  • Tocharian:
    • Tocharian A: tu
    • Tocharian B: tuwe

Coordinate terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • Kloekhorst, Alwin (2008). "Some Indo-Uralic Aspects of Hittite". The Journal of Indo-European Studies 36:1-2.
  • Sihler, Andrew L. (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press