Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search
This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Often compared with similar pronouns in other language families of Eurasia, e.g. Proto-Uralic *tinä. Kloekhorst (2008) proposes that per Anatolian forms such as Hittite 𒍣𒄿𒅅 (zīk), *i rather than *u should be reconstructed in the nominative, which would then suggest an original Indo-Uralic root *ti-.



  1. you, thou (second-person singular pronoun)


Derived terms[edit]


  • Albanian: ti
  • Anatolian:
  • Armenian:
  • Balto-Slavic: *tūˀ
    • Latvian: tu
    • Lithuanian:
    • Old Prussian: tou
    • Slavic: *ty (see there for further descendants)
  • Celtic: *tū (see there for further descendants)
  • Germanic: *þū, *jūz (see there for further descendants)
  • Hellenic:
  • Indo-Iranian: *tuH
  • Italic: *tū, *wōs, *wosteros
    • Latin: , vōs, voster
    • Oscan: [script needed] (tiium), [script needed] (tiú) (nominative), [script needed] (tifei), tfei (dative)
    • South Picene: [script needed] (tiom) (accusative), [script needed] (tefeí), [script needed] (tefeh) (dative)
    • Umbrian: tiom, [script needed] (tiu), tio, teio (accusative), [script needed] (tefe), tefe (dative)
  • Tocharian:
    • Tocharian A: tu
    • Tocharian B: tuwe

Coordinate terms[edit]


  • Kloekhorst, Alwin (2008). "Some Indo-Uralic Aspects of Hittite". The Journal of Indo-European Studies 36:1-2.
  • Sihler, Andrew L. (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0195083458