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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.




  1. to speak, to sound out

Derived terms[edit]

  • *wókʷ- ‎(o-grade root present)
    • Germanic: *gawahwaną ‎(to mention) (see there for further descendants)
  • *wí-wekʷ- ‎(reduplicated present)
  • *wé-wk- ‎(reduplicated aorist)[3]
  • Indo-Iranian:
  • *wṓkʷ-s
  • *wékʷ-os
  • *wokʷ-tlo-
    • Celtic:
      • Old Irish: focul, foccul ‎(word, saying, judgement, promise)
      • Welsh: gwaethl ‎(quarrel, dispute)
    • Indo-Iranian:
  • *wokʷ-tos
  • *uk-tos
    • Indo-Iranian:
      • Indo-Aryan:
        • Sanskrit: उक्त ‎(ukta, said, spoken), past participle of वच् ‎(vac, to speak)
  • *wokʷ-ye-
    • Armenian:
      • Old Armenian: գոչեմ ‎(gočʿem, to cry out)
  • Unsorted formations:
    • Anatolian:
      • Hittite huek-, huk- ‎(to conjure, swear)
    • Balto-Slavic:
      • Old Prussian enwackē ‎(they call)
    • Germanic:
      • Old English: wōm ‎(noise)
      • Old Norse: ómun ‎(voice)
    • Indo-Iranian:
      • Indo-Aryan:
      • Iranian:
        • Kurdish: bang ‎(call)
        • Kurdish: deng ‎(voice)
        • Kurdish: gotin ‎(to say), -bêj-
    • Tocharian:
      • Tocharian A: wak ‎(voice)
      • Tocharian B: wek ‎(voice)


  1. ^ Michiel de Vaan (2008), Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages, Leiden, Boston: Brill Academic Publishers
  2. ^ Guus Kroonen (2013), Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic, Leiden, Boston: Brill Academic Publishers
  3. ^ Don Ringe, From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford University Press, 2006