Reconstruction:Proto-Italic/ferō

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This Proto-Italic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Italic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

PIE root
*bʰer-

From Proto-Indo-European *bʰéreti.

Verb[edit]

*ferō[1]

  1. carry, bear

Inflection[edit]

Inflection of *ferō (third conjugation)
Present *ferō
Perfect
Past participle *fertos
Present indicative Active Passive
1st sing. *ferō *ferōr
2nd sing. *feres *ferezo
3rd sing. *feret *feretor
1st plur. *feromos *feromor
2nd plur. *feretes *ferem(e?)n(ai?)
3rd plur. *feront *ferontor
Present subjunctive Active Passive
1st sing. *ferām *ferār
2nd sing. *ferās *ferāzo
3rd sing. *ferād *ferātor
1st plur. *ferāmos *ferāmor
2nd plur. *ferātes *ferām(e?)n(ai?)
3rd plur. *ferānd *ferām(e?)n(ai?)
Perfect indicative Active
1st sing.
2nd sing.
3rd sing.
1st plur.
2nd plur.
3rd plur.
Present imperative Active Passive
2nd sing. *fere *ferezo
2nd plur. *ferete
Future imperative Active
2nd + 3rd sing. *feretōd
Participles Present Past
*ferents *fertos
Verbal nouns tu-derivative s-derivative
*fertum *ferezi

Related terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Since the paradigm lacked a perfect, a periphrastic perfect was supplied by using the perfect of other verbs. Different languages chose different verbs: Latin used the perfect of *tolnō, while Umbrian used the perfect of *didō. In Latin, the original past participle was ousted in its verbal function by this verb as well.

  • Latin: ferō, fertus
  • Marrucinian: feret ‎(3rd plural present), ferenter ‎(3rd plural present passive)
  • Umbrian: fertu ‎(3rd singular imperative)
  • Volscian: ferom ‎(infinitive)

References[edit]

  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill