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This Proto-Kartvelian entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.
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Borrowed into Proto-Kartvelian from Proto-Indo-European[1][2][3][4][5][6] *we/oi(H)nyo-, via — according to one theory — Proto-Armenian[7][8][9] *ɣʷeinyo- (whence Old Armenian գինի ‎(gini)).

Martirosyan describes the sound change from Proto-Indo-European *w → Proto-Armenian *ɣʷ → Proto-Kartvelian *ɣw as impeccable[7] and says it is also observed in Proto-Indo-European *wi(H)- → Proto-Armenian *ɣʷi- (→ Old Armenian գի ‎(gi, juniper)) → Proto-Kartvelian *ɣwi- → Georgian ღვია ‎(ɣvia, juniper). According to another theory, however, the term was borrowed into Proto-Kartvelian directly from Proto-Indo-European;[2] for example, Klimov (1998) agrees with the ultimate Proto-Indo-European origin of the word but denies derivation from Old Armenian գինի ‎(gini), citing Diakonoff: "It cannot go back to Armenian gini because the change *g probably must have been accomplished there long before the first Kartvelian-Armenian contacts in the 7th–6th centuries B.C.".

According to Fähnrich, the term was not borrowed from Indo-European at all but is a native South Caucasian word derived from the Proto-Kartvelian verbal root *ɣun- ‎(to bend)[10].

The ending of Svan ღვინ-ელ ‎(ɣvin-el), ღვინ-ა̈ლ ‎(ɣvin-äl) represents a petrified diminutive affix.



  1. wine